Political Empowerment

Political Empowerment Participation of women in the political field and in various decision-making bodies is an important tool for empowerment. The participation of women at all levels of governance structures is the highest need of this hour for women’s actual empowerment. Alida Brill (2000) holds that, “Without our own voices being heard inside the government […]

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திருக்குறள்

திருக்குறள் தமிழில் உள்ள அறநூல்களுள் காலத்தால் முந்தியதும் தன்மையால் தலைசிறந்ததும் திருக்குறளாகும். ஈரடி வெண்பா, குறள் வெண்பா எனப்படும். அவ்வெண்பாவால் ஆன நூலும் ஆகுபெயராகக் குறள் என்று பெயர் பெற்றது. அதன் சிறப்பு நோக்கித் திரு என்னும் அடைமொழி சேர்த்துத் திருக்குறள் என்று வழங்கி வருகின்றோம். நூல் அமைப்பு திருக்குறளில் அறத்துப்பால், பொருட்பால், காமத்துப்பால் என்னும் மூன்று பெரும் பிரிவுகள் உள்ளன. ஒவ்வொரு பெரும்பிரிவிலும் பல உட்பிரிவுகள் உள்ளன. இவை இயல்கள் எனப்படும். இயல்களின் உட்பிரிவுகளாக அதிகாரங்கள் […]

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அடால்ஃப் ஹிட்லர் வாழ்க்கை வரலாறு – ஹிட்லர் பிறப்பு – ஹிட்லரின் இளமைக்காலம்- ஓவியத்திராமையயில் ஹிட்லர்- அடால்ப் ஹிட்லர் பெயர்க்காரணம்- ஹிட்லர் வறுமையில் வாழ்த்ததின் காரணம்- ஹிட்லரின் யூத எதிர்ப்பு- ஆரியக் கோட்பாடு- ஹிட்லர் இராணுவத்தில் பணிபுரிதல் – முதல் உலகப்போரில் ஹிட்லர்- இட்லர் தற்காலிகமாக பார்வையிழத்தல்- படைக்குறைப்பு- இட்லர் அரசியலில் நுழைத்தத்தின் காரணம் – இட்லரின் பேச்சாற்றல்- இட்லரி இறப்பு

அடால்ஃப் ஹிட்லர் அடால்ஃப் ஹிட்லர் (Adolf Hitler, ஏப்ரல் 20, 1889- ஏப்ரல் 30 ,1945) ஜெர்மனியின் நாசிக் கட்சியின் தலைவராக விளங்கியவர். அவர் 1933-ஆம் ஆண்டு ஜெர்மனி நாட்டின் சான்சலராக நியமிக்கப்பட்டார். பின்பு 1934-ஆம் ஆண்டு, ஜெர்மனி நாட்டின் தலைவரானார்.1945-ஆம் ஆண்டு ஏப்ரல் 30 ந் தேதியன்று தற்கொலை செய்துக்கொண்டது வரை அவர் அப்பதவியில் தொடர்ந்தார். ஜெர்மனி நாட்டின் ஃபியூரர் என அழைக்கப்பட்டார். இரண்டாம் உலகப்போரின் இறுதியில் ஸ்டாலினின் செம்படைகளிடம் ஜெர்மன் தலைநகர் பெர்லினில் இட்லரின் […]

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Distribution of world population

People have inhabited the earth for several thousands of years, but for a long period of time, their numbers remained limited. It is only during last few hundred years that human population has increased at an alarming rate. Population is spread unevenly across the continents. Only a few areas support large concentration of people while […]

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Population Geography- Introduction of population geography

Introduction Human being is an important element of the environment and is probably the latest occupant of the earth, as its evolution took place less than two million years ago. Although distribution and growth of human population are infl uenced greatly by the physical environment, they have tremendous capacity to modify the physical environment. Demography […]

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Indian national movement timeline 1900-1950

1900- 1910 1905 – Partition of Bengal / Swadeshi Movement 1906 – Muslim League 1907 – Surat Split 1909 – Minto-Morely Reforms 1910-1920 1911 – Ashe Murder 1914 – Foundation of All India Hindu Mahasabha 1915 – The First Hindu Mahasabha conference held at Haridwar 1916 – Home Rule League / Lucknow Pact 1917 – […]

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What is Education, Science and Technology

(a) Education Education and health constitute the social sectors, and the status of education and health indicators are yardsticks for assessing the level of social development in a country. Sadly, India is far behind many less developed countries, especially on health indicators like maternal mortality and infant mortality, and education indicators with respect to school […]

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Five Year Plans

Five Year Plans India followed the example of the USSR in planning for development through five year plans. The Planning Commission was set up in 1950 to formulate plans for developing the economy. Each Plan assesses the performance of the economy and the resources available for future development. Targets are set in accordance with the […]

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What is Development of Industry- History of Industry development- Type of Industry development

India was committed to the idea of promoting rapid industrial growth for economic development. Development can be achieved through several pathways. In a country like India with a large population where many raw materials were grown or were available,processing industries which were more labourintensive would have also led to industrial growth. Alternatively, the Gandhian model […]

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(Mahatma Gandhi) National Rural Employment Guarantee Act, 2005 (MGNREGA)

Over the years, due to concerted efforts, the percentage of households below the poverty line has come down substantially in India. It is now widely recognized that eradicating rural poverty can be achieved only by expanding the scope for non-agricultural employment. Many programmes to generate additional employment had been introduced over the years. Many were […]

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Development of Agriculture- what is Development of Agriculture- Development of agriculture types

a) Green Revolution By the middle of the 1960s the scenario with regard to food production was very grim. The country was incurring enormous expenditure on importing food. Land reforms had made no impact on agricultural production. The government therefore turned to technological alternatives to develop agriculture. High Yielding Variety (HYV) of seeds of wheat […]

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Land Reforms and Rural Reconstruction, Zamindari Abolition, tenancy reform, Land ceiling Laws Passed

Under the Constitution of India, agriculture was a ‘state subject’, that is, each state had to pass laws relating to land reforms individually.Thus, while the basic form of land reforms was common among all the states, there was no uniformity in the specific terms of land reform legislation among the states. (a) Zamindari Abolition Abolition […]

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Rajaji Proposals and the Wavell Plan- history of Mountbatten Plan

Demand for a Separate Nation Meanwhile, the communal challenge persisted and the Muslim League pressed with its demand for a separate nation. The Lahore resolution of the Muslim League in March 1940 had altered the discourse from the Muslims being a ‘minority’ to the Muslims constituting a ‘nation’. Mohammed Ali Jinnah was asserting this right […]

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Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose and the INA

A considerably large contingent of the Indian Army was posted on the South East Asian countries that were part of the British Empire. They were in Malaya, Burma and elsewhere. The forces, however, could not stand up to the Japanese army. The command of the British Indian Army in the South-East Asian front simply retreated […]

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The history of Quit India Movement- What is Quite India Movement

Sometime in May 1942 Gandhi took it upon himself to steer the Indian National Congress into action. Gandhi’s decision to launch a mass struggle this time, however, met with reservation from C. Rajagopalachari as much as from Nehru. Conditions were ripe for an agitation. Prices of commodities had shot up many-fold and there was shortage […]

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The History of Making the Indian Constitution – Indian National Congress And Constitution Assembly

It was a demand from the Indian National Congress, voiced formally in 1934, that the Indian people shall draft their constitution rather than the British Parliament. The Congress thus rejected the White Paper circulated by the colonial government. The founding principle that Indians shall make their own constitution was laid down by Gandhi as early […]

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Making of the Constitution

It was a demand from the Indian National Congress, voiced formally in 1934, that the Indian people shall draft their constitution rather than the British Parliament. T he Congress thus rejected the White Paper circulated by the colonial government. The founding principle that Indians shall make their own constitution was laid down by Gandhi as […]

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Consequences of Partition

T he challenges before free India included grappling with the consequences of partition, planning the economy and reforming the education system (which will be dealt with in the following lesson), making a Constitution that reflected the aspirations kindled by the freedom struggle, merger of the Princely states (more than 500 in number and of different […]

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