Sexual Reproduction in Flowers – Parts of flowers

Pre-fertilization: structures and events The hormonal and structural changes in plant lead to the differentiation and development of floral primordium. The structures and events involved in pre- fertilization are given below Male Reproductive part – Androecium Androecium is made up of stamens. Each stamen possesses an anther and a filament. Anther bears pollen grains which […]

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Sexual Reproduction In Plants

Sexual reproduction involves the production and fusion of male and female gametes. The former is called gametogenesis and the latter is the process of fertilization.recall thesexual reproduction in algae and bryophytes. They reproduce by the production of gametes which may be motile or non motile depending upon the species. The gametic fusion is of three […]

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Vegetative Reproduction Methods – Studymaterial

Vegetative reproduction Natural methods Natural vegetative reproduction is a form of asexual reproduction in which a bud grows and develops into a new plant. The buds may be formed in organs such as root, stem and leaf. At some stage, the new plant gets detached from the parent plant and starts to develop into a […]

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Pest Affecting fruits – Banana, Apple, Grapes, Fig, Tamarind, Papaya, star goosberry, custard apple, pear, peach and plum

BANANA Rhizome weevil Cosmopolites sordidus (Curculionidae: Coleoptera) It is a major pest of banana. Adult is a stout, reddish brown weevil.  Grub is apodous and yellowish with reddish head. Grub bores into rhizome and tunnels within it. Pupates within a chamber made near the outer surface of rhizome.  Adult also tunnels within stem feeding on […]

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PEST Affecting the Fruits – GUAVA, BER, JACK AND PINEAPPLE – Pest Studymaterial

GUAVA Tea mosquito bug Helopeltis antonii (Miridae: Hemiptera) Fruit borer/ Castor capsule borer Conogethes punctiferalis (Pyraustidae: Lepidoptera) Guava fruit flies Bactrocera diversus (Tephritidae: Diptera) Whiteflies, Aleurotuberculatus psidii (Aleyrodidae: Hemiptera) Aphids, Aphis gossypii (Aphididae: Hemiptera) Mealy bugs, Coccus viridis and Ferrisia virgata (Pseudococcidae: Hemiptera) Guava scales Chloropulvinaria psidii (Diaspididae: Hemiptera) Bark borer, Indarbela tetraonis (Metarbelidae: Lepidoptera) […]

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PEST ON WHEAT – Pest Affects Wheat Production-Free Study Guide pest control

Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is an important cereal crop cultivated all over the world and consumed by nearly 35% of the world population. It harbours nearly two dozen of insects; among them only half a dozen of insect pests, like aphids, termites, army worm, pink stem borer, pod borer and Ghujhia weevil, attain the major pest […]

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Common Predators and Parasitoids

Beneficial insects and mites belong to three categories: predators, parasitoids, and pollinators. Predators capture and eat other organisms such as insects or mites. Predators include ladybird beetles, ground beetles, lacewings, syrphid (hover) flies, aphid midges (Aphidoletes) and yellowjacket wasps. Parasitoids are insects that parasitize other insects. The immature stages of parasitoids develop on or within its […]

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Role of Bees in Crop Productivity – How Bees Involved in Agriculture productions – Free Study guide

Qualities of honeybees which make them good pollinators Body covered with hairs and have structural adaptation for carrying nectar and pollen. Bees do not injure the plants Adult and larva feed on nectar and pollen which is available in plenty Considered as superior pollinators, since store pollen and nectar for future use No diapause is […]

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Enemies of Bees – Honey bee plant production- No of enemies involved

Wax Moth a. Greater Wax Moth       Galleria mellonella Galleriidae : Lepidoptera Adults brown in colour. Female moth enters the hive during night and lays creamy white eggs in groups in the cracks and crevices of the hive and combs and in the gap between super and brood chamber.  Caterpillar is dirty white in colour. Egg, […]

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Procedure and Equipment needed for Honey Bee Keeping – Honey bee keeping Guide for students and Farms

Bee Keeping Appliances – Handling Bees and Honey ExtractionBee hives    Bee hives were designed after the discovery of “Bee Space” (or) “Bee Passage” by L.L.Langstroth. It is the optimum distance to be left in between two adjacent comb surfaces in a bee hive which is essential for normal movement and functioning of bees. It is […]

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Apiculture- Different Bee Castes, Hiving of bees and Apiary Management – Development of Honey Bee plant – Study guide of Educational

Apiculture–          It deals with rearing and maintenance of honeybees for the production of honey on a commercial scale.  Different Bee Castes         Every honey bee colony comprises of a single queen, a few hundred drones and several thousand worker castes of honey bees. Queen is a fertile, functional female, worker is an unfertile female and the drone is […]

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