Training – Types of training : Induction or Orientation training and Internship Training – Methods of training : On the Job Training (OJT) and Off the Job Training

Training Training is the act of increasing the knowledge and skills of an employee for doing a particular job.Training the new employee is an investment. Employees need to be thoroughly trained so that a maximum benefit is derived on a long term basis. When the employee has a familiarity on the established operational policies and […]

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Human Resource Management – Recruitment : Internal Source and External source, Selection : Selection, Placement, Induction – Differences between recruitment and selection – Stages in Selection Process

Human Resource Management Human Resource Management Personnel management is highly important in a food service. One of the foremost functions of a food service manager is managing the workers who come from various backgrounds. Extraordinary skills and good human relations are needed for this. The aim of human resource management is to manage human resources […]

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MANAGEMENTS – Functions of Management, Time Management, Money Management, Energy Management

Functions of Management A manager in the food service establishments has to perform various functions for the achievement of pre determined objectives during the process of managing man, money, material and other resources. Luther Gulick (1937) coined the word ‘POSDCORB’ to describe the functions of management Functions of Management 1. Planning Planning is one of […]

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HACCP – Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP), Principles of HACCP, Examples of Critical Control Points, How to establish HACCP? , How to maintain HACCP? , Use of HACCP in food service operations

HACCP Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) Hygiene and sanitation of food at all levels is an important and compulsory process that needs serious and constant consideration. Food handling practices, personal hygiene and clean premises are to be maintained and clean procedures to be followed by the staff. In 1971, Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point […]

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FSSAI – Objectives of FSSAI 2006, Functions of FSSAI, Safe and Nutritious Food, Orange Book, Pink Book, Yellow Book, Licensing & Registration

Objectives of FSSAI 2006 ☆To consolidate the laws relating to food ☆To lay down science based standards for articles of food ☆To regulate the manufacture, storage, distribution, sale and import of food products ☆To ensure availability of safe and wholesome food for human consumption Functions of FSSAI Framing of Regulation ☆To lay down the standards […]

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FSSAI – FSSAI Drafts the Food Safety and Standards (Packaging) Regulations, 2017, FASSI, Laws relating to food before FSSAI 2006, How it integrates?

FSSAI Drafts the Food Safety and Standards (Packaging) Regulations, 2017 The FSSAI has issued a notice proposing new packaging regulations. In the regulations, the FSSAI has defined the terms related to packaging so that the terms like food grade, multilayer food packaging, overall migration limit, package or container, primary and secondary food packaging and specific […]

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Food Adulteration – Contamination of foods with harmful micro organisms, Metallic contamination, Packaging hazards, Other adulterants, Prevention of Food Adulteration Act (PFA 1954), Monosodium Glutamate – (MSG / E621), Common Food Dyes

Contamination of foods with harmful micro organisms Some raw foods like meat, fish, milk and vegetables grown on sewage are likely to be contaminated with harmful microorganisms. These are generally destroyed during cooking or processing of food. Some of the micro organisms may survive due to inadequate heat processing. Even, low moisture foods when stored […]

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Food Adulteration – Adulterants, Concept of Adulteration, Types of Adulterants : Intentional adulterants, Incidental Adulterants

Food Adulteration Food Safety and Standard Authority of India (FSSAI) defines food adulteration as the addition or subtraction of any substance to or from the food, so that the natural composition and the quality of food substance is affected. One form of adulteration is an addition of another substance to a food item in order […]

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Food Safety and Quality – Factors Affecting Safety of food, Prevention of Food Safety Hazard, Personal Hygiene Practices, Food Handling Practices

Food Safety and Quality Food safety is a method of handling, preparation, and storage of food in ways that prevent food-borne infections. Food can transmit pathogens which can result in the illness or death of a person consuming it. Bacteria, viruses, mold and fungi are the pathogens responsible for spoilage of food. Food safety is […]

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Carving of ice & butter – Ice Carving and Butter Carving, Methods for create Butter Carving, Preserve the carvings in a low temperature room

Ice Carving Ice carving is the processes of carving ice to make ice sculptures. Ice is the raw material for ice sculpturing. These sculptures are, mainly used for decorative purpose and they are provided purely realistic effect to one event. The life time of ice sculpture is very little and last for few minutes or […]

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Carving of vegetable & Fruit – Vegetable and Fruit Carvings, Equipment used for carving, Types of Carving, Things to remember before carving, Selection of Fruits and Vegetables for Carving

Vegetable and Fruit Carvings Carving is the act of shaping an object from any material by scraping the substance with the removal of extra unwanted portions. The application of carving can be used on any soft material which can retain the shape. Generally carving is making of sculpture using clay and melted glass. It can […]

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Salad – Importance of Salad, Different types of salads : Green salad,Bound salad, Main course salad, Fruit salad

Salad Salad is a dish prepared from different types of raw or cooked vegetables or fruits itself or garnished with edible oils. Besides vegetables, salad can be prepared using non-vegetarian items like cooked meat, prawns, or any other fish. Commonly the vegetables like beet root, carrot, cucumber, onion, radish, and tomato are used. Salads are […]

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Tea – Types of Processed Tea, Types of Tea – Fruit Beverages, Milk Based Beverages

Tea Tea is the most universally preferred beverage. Tea has been cultivated and consumed for more than 2000 years in China and South–East Asia. The main tea producing areas are India, China, Sri Lanka, Japan and Taiwan. In India, tea is cultivated mainly in Assam, West Bengal, Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka. High quality tea […]

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How to prepare a Coffee – Steps involved in making coffee beverage: Steps in Processing Coffee, Adulterants in Coffee, Methods of preparation of coffee Two level, Different Types of Coffee

Coffee Coffee is the most popular beverage in the world. Brazil is the source of 50 percent world’s coffee production. In India, coffee is mainly cultivated in south, mainly in the state of Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu. Coffee powder is made from ground, roasted beans (seeds) of Coffee Arabica and Coffee Robusta species. It […]

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Beverages – Classification of Beverages: Refreshing, Nourishing, Stimulating, Soothing, Appetizing, Fermented

Beverages-Coffee, Tea, Fruit Juice Beverages are prepared with or without little cooking. Beverages are mainly used as drink for the purpose of relieving thirst, fulfilling fluid requirement, nourishing, refreshing the body and mind and also for stimulating or soothing the individual. Water is the base for the preparation of beverages. Boiling water is the healthy […]

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Characteristics/Quality of cake or scoring of cake – External characteristics, Internal characteristics, Sponge Cakes

Characteristics/Quality of cake or scoring of cake Following characteristics considered for scoring a cake are 1. External characteristics namely i) Volume (ii) Colour of the crust (iii) Symmetry of form (iv) Crust character and (v) Bloom. 2. Internal characteristics such as i) Grain ii) Crumb colour iii) Aroma iv) Taste v) Texture and vi) Shelf […]

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Methods used for the preparation of cakes – Sugar batter, Flour batter, Blending, Boiled, All-in-process, Foaming or Sponge, Sugar water method

Methods used for the preparation of cakes The following methods are involved in the cream/butter cake and sponge cakes making processes: 1. Sugar batter method 2. Flour batter method or two–sponge method 3. Blending method 4. Boiled method 5. All–in–process method 6. Foaming method or sponge method 7. Sugar water method These methods differ from […]

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Ingredients used in cake preparation – Basic ingredients and it’s function, Optional ingredients, Cake Faults, Common Faults in Preparation of Cakes

Ingredients used in cake preparation The basic ingredients used for cake preparation are soft wheat flour (or the flour which is used for bread preparation), sugar, fat, and eggs. i) Basic ingredients ■Flour – Normally a mixture of soft and medium flour in a particular proportion is used for rich cakes like wedding cakes, Christmas […]

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Cake – Types of Cake, Equipment used in Baking

Cake Cake is the most common and important bakery product. This is served as snacks as well as dessert too. It is developed by modification of the ingredients used for the bread. Many varieties of cakes are available in the market. Cake can be made in simpler form or in rich form by including icings […]

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Indian Food Service – Thail meal and Banana leaf service

Indian Food Service The traditional food services commonly followed in India are ‘Thali meals’ and banana leaf service. In India meals are eaten while seated either on the floor or very low stools or mattress. Food is often eaten with the right hand rather than using a cutlery. The left hand is used to serve […]

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