Every bill has to pass through the following stages

UG degree

First Reading

Second Reading

Committee Stage

Report Stage

Third Reading

Committee StageIf the bill is referred to a select Committee, the mover selects the members of the Committee, the Speaker or the Chairman of the House appoints one member of the Committee and the Chairman of the Committee. The Committee will study of the bill and reports back to the House.

Report Stage

The report stage is the most important stage where a bill is debated clause by clause. In this stage, the report is circulated along with original bill and the report of the Select Committee. The report stage is for giving final shape to the bill. Then the bill will be submitted for the Third Reading in which the bill is to be passed with majority of votes. The Third Reading is for formal approval by the Parliament. After the bill is adopted at the Third Reading in either of the house, it is transmitted to the other House, where it goes through all the stages. The other house may accept the bill as it is. After coming across all the stages, it is sent to the President’s assent. Once a bill is passed in its originating house, it also may be rejected in the other house. Otherwise, it may introduce amendments not acceptable to the original House, or may not return the bill within six months. Insuch a case, a constitutional deadlock develops between the two Houses. The President may call a joint session of the two Houses to resolve the deadlock. The Speaker or in his absence the Deputy Speaker presides over such joint sessions. The deadlock is dissolved by majority vote. Finally, the bill is passed by both Houses and goes to the President for his assent. If the President assents to the bill, it becomes a law. But the President may return the bill for reconsideration. If the bill is sent back to the President with or, without amendments, the President cannot withhold his assent. Such a complicated and time-consuming procedure is adopted to prevent hasty legislation.

Private Member Bills:If any member other than a minister introduces a bill, it is called a private member bill. The bill can be introduced by both ruling and opposition party MPs. Private member bill is a bill proposed by a member who is not a member of the cabinet and executive. The session for private member bill is held at alternative Fridays from 2 pm to 6 pm. This bill needs a month of notice; this has no impact on the health of the government when the private member bill gets rejected. Till date, the parliament has passed fourteen private member bills; the last one was passed on 1970. Most of the bill passed by the private member is not even read or discussed and dismissed. Private members bills are accepted even those are constitutional amendment bills but not that those are money bills.

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