The word cotton is derived from the Arabic word qoton or qutun, which means a plant found in conquered land. Cotton is fiber that grows from the surrounding surface of seeds in the pods, or balls of a bushy mallow plant. It is composed basically of a substance called cellulose.
Principal Origin : Natural
Generic Name : Seed hair
Chemical Type : Cellulosic
Common Name : Cotton
Growth and production
Cotton is a member of the Mallow family. Its height ranges from 25 cm to over 2 m, depending upon variety, climate and agronomy. It is normally grown as an annual shrub.
Preparation of Land
The cleared land is ploughed and harrowed to breakup large lumps and remove ridges. Small furrows are opened and at the same time, the seeds are dropped in one at a time, generally with fertilizer being put in the furrow at the same time. Generally cotton is planted in February in the more southerly regions but it may be as late as June in the northernmost sections of the cotton belt. When the plants have grown to a height of 5 to 7 inches, they are generally thinned out so that there are not more than 2 or 3 plants per hill, or so that the plants are about 9 to 14” apart in rows. This is usually done by hand. Within a few weeks after the plant has emerged, the first buds appear. This consists of three triangular strapped leaflets or bracts, and the flower buds. It is at this stage when the plant is about to bear its blossom and seed, that it is most susceptible to insect damage. The principal enemy to cotton is the ball weevil. Other parts are aphids, worms, spider, mites and a number of other small insects.
Maturing of the Ball:
About 21 days after the buds are first seen, the cotton blossom appears. This is at first a creamy white to a deep yellow color. Later it becomes pink and eventually dark red. It lasts about 3 days, after which the petals fall off and the ovary ripens to form a pod which we know as the cotton ball. Next fibers push out from the coating of the seed, causing the ball to expand until it is nearly one inch in diameter and half again as long. Different varieties of cotton matures at Sowing Seed Within few weeks Within few weeks Buds 21 days Cotton Blossom white to deep yellow colou Petals fall off r Ovary ripens Expansion of cotton ball Growth of cotton different rates; usually it takes between 45 and 65 days from blossom to the open ball. The growing season, fertilizer, degree of cultivation and amount of moisture – all these factors may affect the maturing of cotton crop.