Front Axle and Stub Axle – Working Methods – Studymaterial


Front Axle

Front axle carries the weight of the
front part of the vehicle. Front axle includes axle beam stub axles with brake assembly, track rod and stub axle arm to steer and brake the vehicle. To accommodate front
engine and to provide stability and safety,the centre portion of the axle is dropped. It is called as front axle.


In light vehicles, front axles are
tubular in section and in heavy commercial vehicles, the front axles are made up of I cross section. In both the ends,stub axles are connected with front axle by means of kingpin and steering track arm.

Types of Front axle

1. Dead Axle
2. Live Axle

Dead axle

It is a just dummy axle. It having
no connections with engine. It has
sufficient rigidity and strength to
transmit the weight of the vehicle from the steering and brake system without differential and axle shaft

Live axle

Live axle is the one through which
power is transmitted to the wheels by
means of differential and axle shaft.
In case of front wheel drive or in all
wheel drive, the front axle will act as
live axle.

Stub Axle

Stub axle is a short axle. Stub axle are
connected to the front axle by means of king pin. The front wheels are mounted on the stub axle. Stub axle is capable of limited angular movement about the kingpin for steering the vehicle. Stub axle helps to turn the vehicle at desired direction through steering linkage.

Types of Stub axle

Front axles are built according
to four basic designs for attaching the
steering knuckle to the beam. They are

1. Elliot type
2. Reverse Elliot type
3. Lemoine type
4. Reverse Lemoine type

1. Elliot axle

The Elliot type stub axle is shown
in the figure. The end of the
axles are in the shape of a elliot. A king pin with cotter pin connects the stub axle.So the stub axle turns easily to and fro.

2 Reversed Elliot axle

The reverse elliot type is shown
in figure of the stub axle in
the reversed Elliot shape. A king pin
w it h c otte r pi n c on ne c t s t he stub axle. So the stub axle turns easily to and fro.

3. Lemoine axle

Two spindles at right angles to each
other, stub axle and axle center. Lemoine,a French axle and spring manufacturer designed this. In this design, pivot spindle extended up from the wheel spindle. Tends
to raise the axle center above the wheel spindle, hence poorly suited to modern conditions, where low axle centres is preferred In this type, the stub axle is attached to the end of the axle by means of king pin. It is used in tractors.

4. Reversed lemoine axle

Marmon, American passenger car
manufacturer, reversed the arrangement and developed the design. A natural drop to the axle center, is an advantageous feature.
In this type, the stub axle is mounted
on the top of the axle by means of king pin. It is used in tractors

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