Kidney Failure, Causes of Kidney Failure, Acute Renal Failure, what causes kidney failure, Signs and symptoms of Kidney failure

Nursing

Acute  renal failure  is a syndrome of varying causation that results in a sudden decline in renal function. Kidneys are a pair of organs located toward lower back.  One kidney is on each side of spine.  They filter blood and remove toxins from body. 

Kidneys send toxins to your bladder. Later body removes toxins during urination.  Kidney failure  occurs  when  kidneys  abruptly  lose  their function of filtering waste products from the blood.

Causes


* Pre–renal causes:  It results from the condition that decreases renal blood flow (e.g. Hypovolemia, shock, hemorrhage, burns, diuretic therapy)

* Post–renal causes: It comes from obstruction or distruption of urine flow anywhere along the urinary tract

* Intra – renal causes: It results from injury in the renal tissue and is usually associated with intra renal ischemia, toxins immunologic process, systematic and vascular disorders

Signs and Symptoms


* Decreased tissue turger, dryness of mucous membrane, weight loss, hypotension, oliguria

* Difficulty in voiding and changes in urine flow
* Fever and skin rashes, edema
* Changes in urine volume, increases blood urea, creatinine, uric acid, potassium levels etc

Investigations


* Urine analysis: Reveals protenuria, haematuria
* Raise of Serum creatinine in blood
*  Urine culture
* Renal ultrasonography
* Renal biopsy

Management


* Correct any reversible cause of acute renal failure E.g: Improve renal perfusion maximize cardiac output, surgical release of obstruction

* Be alert for fluid excess or deficit
* Monitor the signs of hypovolemia or hypervolemia
* Monitor Intake and output chart
* Weigh the patient daily

* Monitor vital signs
* Correct and control biochemical imbalances
* Restore and maintain B/P
* Maintain nutrition
*  Initiate haemodialysis
* Renal replacement therapy

Prevention


* Maintaining healthy lifestyle – performing regular physical activity, limiting alcohol intake, and refraining from smoke can keep you away from illness
* Be attentive while taking over the counter (OTC) medications, especially NSAIDs as they can be nephrotoxic
* Undergo urine test and blood test at least once in 6 months to monitor kidney disease
* Consult a doctor immediately if you find any changes in your urine output

Complication


* Infection
* Arrhythmias due to hyperkalemia
* Electrolyte abnormalities
* Gastrointestinal bleeding
* Multiple organ system failure

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