Functions of Management
A manager in the food service establishments has to perform various functions for the achievement of pre determined objectives during the process of managing man, money, material and other resources.
Luther Gulick (1937) coined the word ‘POSDCORB’ to describe the functions of management
Functions of Management
Planning is one of the important functions of management. Planning is defined as a ‘function of the management that helps in developing a course of action for meeting the desired objectives, designed to fulfill overall organizational goals’. Plate
Planning is necessary to ensure proper utilization of human and nonhuman resources. It is an intellectual activity that helps in avoiding confusion, uncertainties, risks and wastages. Planning is deciding in advance – what to do, when to do and how to do. It bridges the gap from where we are and where we want to b e”. E.g.: Within a food service operation planning is essential in setting menu, forecasting production, scheduling employees, stating policies, procedures, methods, standards and budgets.
Organizing is the function of management which deals with the arrangement, distribution and conduction of responsibilities in order to accomplish the common goals. Organizing process involves
☆Identification of activities.
☆Classification of grouping of activities.
☆Assignment of duties.
☆Delegation of authority and creation of responsibility.
☆Coordinating authority and responsibility relationships.
Staffing is the personnel function of employing and training human resources and maintaining favourable work conditions.
☆Manpower Planning-Recruitment, Selection and Placement
○Training and Development
☆Promotions and Transfer
Directing needs continuous process of decision making, communication in order to ensure appropriate action from subordinates. Incomplete directions from managers will lead to friction among employees. The four primary components of direction are supervision, communication, leadership and motivation.
Controlling is the process of checking whether or not proper progress is being made towards the objectives and goals and acting if necessary, to correct any deviation.
Controlling has following steps:
a. Establishment of standard performance.
b. Measurement of actual performance.
c. Comparison of actual performance with the standards and finding out deviation if any.
d. Corrective action.
In this function, the managers, supervisor and subordinates keep informed the progression of work or task accomplished through records, reports and inspection.
This includes financial planning, accounting and controlling. Through control, standards of acceptability and accountability are set for performance.
Time, Money and Energy Management
A food service establishment has to utilize the required resources – time, money and energy to survive in its ever changing and competitive environment.
Equal distribution of time to human resources is important for the best performance within a scheduled time.
For E.g.: Food has to be served in time in the food service operations. This needs immense plans and schedules.
Due to peaks and troughs of activity in food service operations, a lot of valuable resources get wasted, at different points of production and service cycle. Hence analyzing each employees work and their utilization of time becomes essential.
Factors for poor management of time in kitchens and service areas are:
☆Reaching late to work spot.
☆Absence of production plans in advance.
☆Failure of requisition of ingredients in time to start the work.
☆Improper maintenance of equipment and work centers.
☆Laziness, fear towards superiors, excessive supervision, and ignorance.
☆Family problems or medical or social or psychological problem.
Constructive, planned action, proper management style, focused attention and maintenance of adequate records have to be set in the food service establishments to effectively manage and save the time
The main aim to food service establishments is to make profits. To achieve that, money has to be invested and spent in order to acquire the other resources necessary for the production and service of food. Money flow in the establishment will occur when food is available for the customers. Following ways will ensure good investment decisions of money for food service establishment.
☆Area of the space should be adequate in order to cope with the expected number of customers and the range of services to be offered both for short and long term.
☆Ergonomic suitability design of equipment, furniture, structure, surfaces, fittings for use by staff and customers.
☆Control of operating and maintenance costs.
☆Flexibility, durability and continuity and safety of areas, equipment and materials.
Moreover a constant review or evaluation on money spent is necessary to ensure success of catering operations.
The important energy resources in food service establishments are fuel sources and human efforts. With prevailing high prices, shortages and non- availability these resources, people had never thought of conserving until recently.
T he fuel energy is wasted in food service establishment, especially in kitchen. E.g.: the ways of fuel energy wasted are listed:
☆Keeping switches on much before it is required especially on ovens, stoves or grills.
☆Equipment is lighted for full heat irrespective of the size of the container.
☆Following improper methods of cooking.
☆Cooking food without thawing, when necessary.
☆Preparation of food, long before the time of service requires food to be held hot for longer periods.
☆Use of high wattage bulbs.
☆Keeping exhaust fans running when kitchen and service areas are not in use.
☆Use of colors on walls and ceilings and materials which absorb light instead of reflecting it back for visibility. This lead to use of artificial lighting.
Similarly the human energy may be wasted due to following factors.
☆Improper planned layouts involving extra movement while working.
☆Uncomfortable working conditions leading to slow movements and fatigue.
☆Poorly scheduled work and time of staff.
☆Poor health of employees – frequent sickness and accidents.
☆Aggressive behaviour as a personality trait drains a lot of energy.
☆Lack of supervision, leading to wrong methods of working.
☆Leadership style which generates fear, anxiety and lack of confidence in people at work.
Time and energy need to be conserved for efficient use. Time wasted never returns and energy wasted can be regenerated incurring high cost. It is therefore necessary to find possible ways to save time and energy in food service establishments, few ways are listed below:
☆Invest on automatic equipment designed to switch off fuel supply immediately after cooking.
☆Use of thermostats to control temperatures.
☆Use of right size of pans.
☆Proper arrangements of work centers to avoid extra movements.
☆Utilise renewable source of energy ie., solar energy.
☆Placing of refrigerators away from kitchens to conserve electricity and maintenance of equipment for efficient usage.
☆Efforts to recycle heat given off from kitchens for purposes of raising temperature of washing water would conserve lot of fuel.
Resources are limited and the correct utilization of resources especially energy is important and should be realized by everyone and the best way to utilize is to discover economic uses by the food service establishments.