Mental Retardation, What are the level of Mental Retardation, what causes mental retardation

Nursing

Mental retardation is a condition of both clinical and social importance. It is characterized by limitations in performance that result from significant impairments in measured intelligence and adaptive behaviour.

Mental retardation is defined as:

* Significantly sub average general intellectual functioning (IQ below 70)

* Significantly deficit or impairment in adaptive functioning

*Which manifests during the period of development (before 18 years of age)

Types

• Mild mental retardation (IQ 50 – 70) 85% of the total mental retardation

• Moderate MR –(IQ 35 – 49) 12% of the total MR. Most of them can talk and learn

• Severe MR(IQ 20 – 34) 7% of the total MR.

Only few of them learn to care for themselves completely

Responsibilities of home health nurse in care of the mentally retarded

Primary prevention

* Good antenatal check – up

* Improving socio – economic status

* Education

* Facilitating research to identify the genetic counselling cause

Secondary level

* Early detection of defects and correction

* Prevention of child abuse and sexual abuse

Tertiary prevention

* Treatment of physical and psychological problems

* Behaviour modification

* Physiotherapy to treat the rehabilitation disability

Effects of MR on the family

* Distress

*Depression, guilty feeling

* Over indulgence

*Social problems

*Marital disharmony

* Dissatisfaction about medical and social services

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