Economics Uncategorized


Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into the natural environment that causes adverse change, in the form of killing of life, toxicity of environment,damage to ecosystem and aesthetics of our surrounding.

Types of Pollution:
1. Air pollution
2. Water pollution
3. Noise pollution
4. Land pollution

Air Pollution:
“Air pollution is the presence of any solid, liquid, or gaseous substance in the atmosphere in such concentration as may be
or tend to be injurious to human beings or
other living creatures or plants or property
or environment”.
-The Air (Prevention and Control of
Pollution) Act, 1981.

Types of Air pollution:  Indoor Air Pollution: It refers to toxic
contaminants that we encounter in our
daily lives in our homes, schools and workplaces. For example, cooking and heatinng with solid fuels on open fires or traditional stoves results in high levels of indoor air pollution.
 Outdoor Air Pollution: It refers to
ambient air. The common sources of outdoor air pollution are caused by combustion processes from motor vehicles, solid fuel burning and industry.

Causes of Air Pollution:
1. Vehicle exhaust smoke: Vehicles smoke
happens to release high amounts of Carbon monoxide. Millions of vehicles are operated every day in cities, each one leaving behind its own carbon footprint on the environment.
2. Fossil fuel based power plants:Fossil fuels also present a wider scale problem when they are burned for energy in power plants. Chemicals like sulfur dioxide are released during the burning process, which travel straight into the atmosphere. These types of
pollutants react with water molecules
to yield something known as acid rain. 3. Exhaust from Industrial Plants and
Factories: Heavy machineries located inside big factories and industrial plants also emit pollutants into the air.
4. Construction and Agricultural activities: Potential impacts arising from the construction debris would include dust particles and gaseous emissions from the construction sites. Likewise, using of ammonia for agriculture is a frequent byproduct that happens to be one of the most dangerous gases affecting air.
5. Natural Causes: Earth is one of the biggest polluters itself, through volcanoes, forest fires, and dust storms. They are nature-borne events that dump massive amounts of air pollution
into the atmosphere.
6. Household activities: Household activities like cooking, heating and lighting, use of various forms of mosquito repellents, pesticides and chemicals for cleaning at home and use of artificial fragrances are some of the
sources that contribute to air pollution.

Effects of Air Pollution:
1. Respiratory and heart problems: It creates several respiratory and heart ailments along with cancer. Children are highly vulnerable and exposed to air pollutants and commonly suffer from pneumonia and asthma.
2. Global warming: Increasing temperature in the atmosphere leads to global warming and thereby to increase sea level rise and melting of polar icebergs, displacement and loss
of habitat.
3. Acid rain: Harmful gases like nitrogen
oxides and sulfur oxides are released into the atmosphere during the burning of fossil fuels. Acid rain causes great damage to human beings, animals and crops.
4. Eutrophication: Eutrophication is a condition where high amount of nitrogen present in some pollutants which adversely affects fish, plants and animal species.
5. Effect on Wildlife: Toxic chemical present in the air can force wildlife species to move to new place and change their habitat.
6. Depletion of Ozone layer: Ozone exists in earth’s atmosphere and is responsible for protecting humans from harmful ultraviolet (UV) rays. Earth’s ozone layer is depleting due
to presence of chlorofluorocarbons and hydro chlorofluorocarbons in the atmosphere.
7. Human Health: Outdoor air pollution
is a major cause of death and disease globally. The health effects range from increased hospital admissions and emergency room visits, to increased risk of premature death. An estimated 4.2 billion premature deaths globally are linked to ambient air pollution.

Remedial measures to control Air
1. Establishment of industries away from the towns and cities
2. Increasing the length of the Chimneysin industries
3. Growing more plants and trees
4. Use of non-conventional fuels like Biogas, CNG and LPG.
5. Use of Mass Transit System (Public Transport).

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