Tuberculosis, Diseases transmitted through Air, symptoms of tuberculosis, classification of tuberculosis,Dosage levels

Nursing

Tuberculosis

Tuberculosis (TB) is a potentially fatal contagious disease. That can affect almost any part of the body. It’s mainly an infection of lung.

Causative organism

* Mycobacterium tuberculi

Incubation period

2 to 12 weeks

Classification of TB

Pulmonary TB

• Primary disease

• Secondary disease

Extra pulmonary

• Lymph node TB

• Pleural TB

• TB of upper airways

• Skeletal TB

• Genitourinary TB

• Miliary TB

• Pericardial

• Gastrointestinal TB

• Tuberculous Meningitis

• Less common forms

Transmission of TB

* Cough droplet

* Crowded places with poor ventilation

* Splitting of saliva

Symptoms

* Chest pain

* Coughing with bloody sputum

* Shortness of breath

* Cloudy and Reddish urine

* Evening raise in temperature

* Fatigue

Diagnosis

* Bacteriological Test (Zeihl – Neelsen stain)

* Sputum culture test

* Chest x-ray

* Nucleic acid amplification

* Mantoux test (PPD)

Management

* First line drugs: Eg: Isoniazid, Rifampin, Ethambutal

* Second line drugs: Eg: Cycloserine, Ethionamide, Levofloxacin

Dosage Regimen

* Intensive phase + Continuation phase

* HREZ (2months) + HRE (4months)

Preventive Measures

* Mask

* BCG Vaccine

* Regular medical follow up

* Isolation of patient

* Ventilation

* Natural sunlight

* UV germicidal radiation

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