Vitamins, Types of Vitamins and its functions, Fat soluble vitamins, Vitamins A, D, E and K, Vitamin Foods and Vitamins Deficiency

UG degree

Vitamins

vitamins are complex chemical substances required by body in very small amounts. Vitamins in food are for the protection and regulation of body functions.

* Vitamins are divided in to two major groups

* Fat soluble vitamins- Vitamin-A, D, E and K

* Water soluble vitamins- Vitamins of B group and vitamin C

Fat Soluble Vitamins

Vitamin-A

The chemical name is Retinol. Found in foods of both plant and animal origin.

Daily requirements: 0.4-1 mg

Sources

Green leafy vegetables and yellow orange fruits and vegetables like mango, papaya, pumpkins and carrots are good sources of β-carotene. Butter, whole milk, egg, liver and fish are richest sources.

Functions

• Necessary for the health of the eyes.

• Maintenance of the normal epithelial tissues of the body.

• Necessary for growth and proper utilization of protein

Deficiency Syndrome

* Decreased resistance to infection

* Dry scaly skin

* Night blindness (Inability to see in dim light)

* Xerophthalmia- dry eye

* Bitot’s spots- Greyish, rough and raised patches on conjunctiva

* Keratomalacia- Softening of the cornea.

* Stunted Growth

Vitamin-D

Vitamin D is synthesized by sunlight. Vitamin D is essential for bone growth.

Daily requirements: 400 IU

Sources

Generated in the skin by action of ultra violet rays of sunlight

Food sources are milk, butter, cheese, egg, fish and fish liver oils, and foods which have been fortified by addition of vitamin D.

Functions

• Increases intestinal absorption of calcium and phosphates

• Mineralization of bones

Deficiency Syndrome

Rickets in children- Bony deformities in growing children due to defective mineralization of the growing bones. Bones become soft and bend under pressure. Osteomalacia- Generalized bone pain in adults especially in women.

Vitamin E

Vitamin E is an antioxidant and formed up of chemical substance called tocopherols.

Daily requirements: ICMR recommends 0.8 mg/ g of essential fatty acids.

Sources

Milk, oils, eggs, leafy vegetables, papaya, grains, nuts.

Functions

• Antioxidant (Prevents the formation of oxidative free radical)

• Co factor in electron transport

• Prevents or delays the ageing

Deficiency syndrome:

Sterility, muscle wasting with weakness

Vitamin K

It is otherwise called as antihemorrhagic vitamin. Daily requirements WHO suggested RDA of 55 μg per day for adults.

Sources

Green leafy vegetables, cereals, fruits. Synthesized by bacteria in gut.

Functions

• Important component in blood coagulation

• Helps in formation of blood clotting factors

Deficiency Syndrome:

Alteration in blood clotting mechanism

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