What is Anaemia, causes of anemia, symptoms of anaemia, Types of Anaemia, Complications of Anaemia

Nursing

Anaemia

Anaemia is a condition in which there is a reduction in the number of red blood cells and a deficiency of haemoglobin resulting in decreased oxygen-carrying capacity.

Causes

1. Blood loss related to trauma

2. Decreased production of platelets.

3. Increased destruction of platelets

4. Decreased number of clotting factor.

5. Impairment of RBC production due to nutritional deficiency, (e.g Iron deficiency, folic deficiency, Vitamin B12 deficiency, Vitamin B6 deficiency).

6. Decreased erythrocyte production, bone narrow depression.

7. Increased erythrocyte destruction due to

i. Extrinsic factors

• Drugs and chemicals

• Infection

• Antibody reaction

ii. Intrinsic factors

• Abnormalities of RBC membrane

• Abnormal haemoglobin synthesis sickle cell, disease, thalasemia syndrome

Symptoms of Anaemia

Pathophysiology

RBCs and haemoglobin are normally formed at the same rate at which they are destroyed. Whenever formation of RBCs or haemoglobin is decreased or their destruction is increased, anaemia results.

Diagnosis

1. Complete blood count

2. Haemoglobin electrophoresis

Types of Anaemia

1. Anaemia from blood loss: Haemorrhage or continued slow bleeding will cause anaemia.

2. Iron deficiency Anaemia: It may result from faulty eating habits (Poor diets or hurrying meals).

3. Pernicious Anaemia: A patient with pernicious Anaemia lacks substances in the gastric juice called instrinsic factor, which is necessary to enable the body to absorb vitamin B12 from food.

4. Sickle cell anaemia: It is genetic disease in which the red blood cells become sickle in shape due to the presence of abnormal haemoglobin.

5. Aplastic anaemia: It results from disease of the bone marrow (where most blood cells are produced.) whereby the marrow is destroyed. PALE SKINE SHORTNESS OF BREATH

6. Megaloblastic anaemia: It is caused by deficiency of the vitamin B12 and folic acid. This shows identical bone marrow and peripheral blood changes, because both vitamins are essential for normal DNA synthesis.

7. Haemolytic anaemia: The erythrocyte has a shortened life span.

Management

1. Anaemia from blood loss: Replace the blood cells by transfusion and at times administering iron supplements.

2. Iron-Deficiency Anaemia: Take extra iron containing food.

3. Pernicious Anaemia: Take vitamin B12 containing foods and injection every 2 or 3 weeks will allow the person to live normally

. 4. Sickle cell Anaemia: Citadels citrate, pentoxifylline, vanillin oil as anti sickly effects evaluated as adjunctive therapy for sickle cell anaemia. Blood transfusion and folic acid therapy is administered.

5. Aplastic anaemia: Two methods of managements are currently employed. Bone marrow transplantation and Administration of immunosuppressive therapy with entity.

6. Megaloblastic anaemia: Injection B12 is administered, provide nutritious diet and folic acid 1 mg per day.

Nursing Management

* Offer small amount of foods at frequent intervals

* Provide iron-rich foods and vitamins.

* Teach and assist with good hygienic practices

* Good dietary habits

Complication

* Mental sluggishness

* Growth retardation

* Delayed puberty related to growth retardation

* Cardiac failure related to collapse and shock resulting in death

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