Tyre construction and Properties of a Tyre – Automobile Study material

Properties of tyre

The following are the important properties of the tyres

1. It should be more comfort for traveling.
2. It should be able to withstand vibrations of the road sides.

3. The tyre should give stability to the vehicle when the vehicle is negotiating a turn.
4. Vehicle should stop immediately by creating the friction without any slip
when applying the brake.
5. It should be able to give very less rolling resistance.
6. The tyre must provide safety to the vehicle when the vehicle moving on
the road.
7. The tyre must work for a long period.

Functions of the tyres

1. It withstands the whole weight of the vehicle.
2. It creates the friction on the road and helps to roll the wheel on the road.
3. It gives road stability for the vehicles.

4. It withstands the vibrations of the vehicle when the vehicle is going on
the bumps and pot holes.

Tyre construction

It consists of the following four parts. They are,

1. The bead region
2. The side wall region
3. The shoulder region
4. The tread region


Bead is a part of the tyre which is used to fit the tyre on the wheel rim.Bead is made of a circular metal wire placed on both sides of the tyre. In the tyre beads one or more metal wires are covered strongly by the thick nylon or rayon threads around the metal wires.Tyre beads help to keep the tyre shape unchanged.

Side wall region

The side wall of the tyre is constructed to be very flexible. The vertical area between the tyre bead and tyre tread region is called as the side wall region.Wheel tube is fitted inside this region. The tyre marks are made in this side wall area only.

Shoulder region

The horizontal area of region connecting the side walls and the tread is called as the shoulder region. This shoulder region creates a slightly curved look for the tyre area.

Tread region

The top area on the periphery of the wheel that is in contact on the road surface is called as the tread region. For giving good grip on the road, there are different shapes of cross grooves available on this region.

Tread types

The tread region present in the tyres is of three types. They are

1. Stud type tread
2. Symmetrical type tread.

3. Winter type tread

Stud type tread

This type of tread is used in the front tyres of the normal Jeep and
tractor. The tyre has small button shapes to be present on the circular area of tyre.

Symmetrical type tread

This type of tread is used in the wheels of light duty vehicles and cars. The cross section of the tread in this tyre is bent over the surface on the circumferential surface of the wheel.

Winter type tread

This type of tread is made on the rear wheels of special vehicles such as tractors and earth movers. The buttons of the tread in this tyre are very large and very height.

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