Construction of a Chassis Frame – Materials used in a chassis frame


In an automobile, all the subsystems
excluding the body is called as Chassis.

Construction of the chassis

The layout of various subsystems is shown in the figure.

In the present manufacturing of the
vehicle, the body is separately fabricated and it is mounted over the chassis. The importance subsystems that are connected in the chassis frame includes engine, clutch assembly, gear box, suspension system,wheels and tires, steering system, brake,fuel tank, electrical system etc.

Parts mounted on the chassis frame

1. Chassis frame

Chassis frame is fixed with two
longitudinal bars and four or five cross bars by rivet or bolts. Quality alloy steel is used to withstand the total weight of the vehicle. It is considered as the backbone of the vehicle.

2. Engine

The driving power of the vehicle
is provided by the engine. It converts the chemical energy in the fuel into mechanical energy to propel the vehicle. The engine power is transmits to road wheel through
clutch, gear box and rear axle.

3 . Clutch

The main function of the clutch
is to take up the drive smoothly from
the engine and to release or disengage
whenever desired. It is fixed in between engine and gear box. To avoid broken of gears in the gear box.

4. Gearbox

According to operating conditions,
to provide the necessary torque variation from the engine to the drive wheels, gear box is used. Also, to reverse the direction of the vehicle whenever required.

5.Suspension system

Suspension system is used to
prevent the road shock and to enhance ride comfort to the passenger and to the various vehicle components. They also preserve vehicle stability under variousbroad conditions. It is fixed in between
axle and chassis frame.

6. Brake system

Brake systems are used to stop the
vehicle, or to reduce the vehicle speed,and to prevent rolling of the vehicle when travelling on inclined surface. Brakes are fixed in each four wheels. Its functions by using mechanical linkage, hydraulic
power and air.

7. Steering system

Steering system is used to change
the direction of the vehicle as desired by the driver. The steering systems helpsbin reducing the drivers work throughnmechanical advantage, to control thenvehicle according to road condition and speed.

8. Electrical system

Electrical system includes ignition
system lighting system, starting system,charging system and other electrical accessories. Electrical energy for all the system is provided by the battery. Battery is known as heart of the electrical system.charging system and other electrical
accessories. Electrical energy for all
the system is provided by the battery.
Battery is known as heart of the electricalnsystem.

Materials Used for the Chassis Frame

Frame should be extremely rigid
and strong so that it can withstand shocks, twist, stresses and vibrations when vehiclenis moving on road. The chassis frame should be made from high strength materials. The following materials arenwidely used for the manufacture of thenchassis frame.

1. Mild sheet Steel
2. Carbon sheet Steel
3. Sheet Nickel Alloy

The chemical composition of nickel
alloy steel is

Carbon – 0.25% – 0.35%
Manganese – 0.35% – 0.75%
Silicon – 0.30%
Nickel – 3%
Phosphorus – 0.05%
Sulphur – 0.5%

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