Automobile Components and its Functions – Automobile Studymaterial

Basic components of Automobile

1. Frame
2. Engine
3. Clutch
4. Gear box
5. Propeller shaft
6. Rear axle
7. Front axle
8. Suspension system
9. Steering system
10. Braking system
11. Wheel and tyre and
12. The electrical system

Important components of the automobile


The vehicle without the body is
called as the Chassis. It is the under part of an automobile on which the body is mounted. The chassis is called as the back bone of the vehicle. The structure of the chassis is shown in the below image


It is a lengthy component which
has cross frames joined rigidly by rivets.It is the foundation for carrying the engine, transmission system, steering system. This frame is made of stainless steel which is able to carry the whole weight of the vehicle. It is back bone of the vehicle.


The necessary power can be produced from the engine for running the vehicle. Petrol and Diesel are used as fuels to run the engine. It is located
at the front of the vehicle. It converts
the heat energy by burning the fuel into mechanical energy. Hence it is called as the heart of the vehicle.


Clutch is a mechanical device which is used to transfer and cut the engine’s power transmitted to the driveline.
It is located in between engine and gear box.

Gear box

The box with set of gears inside
the casing is called as gear box. It is
used to change (increase and reduce) the speed and torque of vehicle according to different road and load conditions of the vehicle.

Propeller Shaft

It is a type of long hollow shaft. This
is located in between the gear box and differential. It transmits power from gear box to differential

Front axle

Front wheels are coupled with front
axle. Front axle carries the weight of the front part of the vehicle as well as facilitates steering and absorbs shocks due to road surface variations.

Rear axle and Differential

Rear wheels are attached to the
two ends of rear axle. The rear axle helps to turn the vehicle into the curved road.The differential gear in the center is cut by the speed of the cycle through the propeller shaft and then transported to 90 deg by wheels.

Suspension system

The Spring Shock absorber has been
connected to the front and back axles and helps to drive the vehicle smooth and slower from the vibrations in the road.

Steering system

The steering system operates on
a very simple mechanism that directly transforms steering wheel rotation into straight line movement and helps in turn the vehicle as per the road.

Braking system

Brakes are installed on the four
wheels of the vehicle and work through mechanical connections, hydraulic and air. The very important part of an automobile is the braking system that helps to drive and control the speed of the vehicle within safe speed.

Wheels and tyres

The wheels help to carry the vehicle’s entire weight and to drive the vehicle. The wheels are connected to the front and rear axles of a vehicle. They absorb the vibrations produced from the road and help to keep the tyres soft and smooth.

Electrical system

Electrical system supplies electrical
energy which is used to produce the spark for igniting the air fuel mixture in petrol engines, to provide light for the vehicle during night ride, to operate the wiper motor, to light inside the vehicle, to play music and for dashboard lights.

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