Compact Fluorescent Lamp (CFL)

Compact Fluorescent Lamp (CFL) The compact fluorescent lamps are becoming very useful nowadays, because of consumption of power, cost, longer life, attractive look, smooth light and low maintenance. These lamps…

Fluorescent lamp

Fluorescent lamp It is a low pressure mercury vapour lamp. It consists of a glass tube 25 mm in diameter and 0.6 m, 1.2 m and 1.5 m in length.…

Mercury vapour lamp

Mercury vapour lamp On the basis of pressure inside the discharge tube, the mercury vapour lamps are classified as High pressure mercury vapour lamp and Low pressure mercury vapour lamp.…

Sodium vapour lamp

Sodium vapour lamp Sodium vapour lamps are some of the most efficient lamps in the world. They have an efficiency of up to 190 lumens per watt compared to an…

Incandescent lamp – There are two types. 1. Vacuum type lamp and 2. Gas filled type lamp

Incandescent lamp The filament of this lamp is heated up to the incandescent stage of heat. So these types of lamps are called as incandescent lamps. There are two types.…

Arc lamp and Carbon arc lamp

Arc lamp The principle of an arc lamp is that when two electrodes carrying current are separated through a small distance, an arc is struck between them. The arc lamps…

Laws of illumination – Inverse square law, Lambert’s cosine law, Light, Electrical method of producing light

Laws of illumination The illumination on a surface depends upon the luminous intensity, distance between the source and surface and the direction of rays of light. It is governed by…

Illumination – Introduction, Important terms in illumination

Introduction Almost all human activities are based on light. Natural light is obtained from the sun. Artificial light plays an important role in our everyday life. In places where natural…

Difference between Overhead line and Underground cables

Difference between Overhead line and Underground cables

Three phase cable – they are a. Belted cable up to 11 KV, b. Screened cable 22KV to 66 KV, c. Pressure cable above 66 KV

Three phase cable Commonly, underground cables are used to transmit three phase power supply. For three phase service, the following cables are used. a. Belted cable up to 11 KV…

Classification of cables – According to the rating of voltage the cables, According to insulation, cables, According to number of conductors, cables

Classification of cables a. According to the rating of voltage the cables are classified into i. Low tension cables up to 1 KV ii. High tension cable up to 11KV…

Power distribution system, Feeder line, Distributor, Classification of distribution system, Service lines

Power distribution system The medium voltage transformer using transmission lines are reduced by step down transformer (415V, or 240V) are used to the consumer. This system includes the feeder lines,…

Types of insulators – they are i) Pin type insulator, ii ) Suspension insulators {a. Hewlett suspension type b. Cemented cap type c. Core and link type}, iii. Strain insulator, iv. Shackle insulator, v. Stay type insulator

Types of insulators i. Pin type insulator ii. Suspension insulators a. Hewlett suspension type b. Cemented cap type c. Core and link type iii. Strain insulator iv. Shackle insulator v.…

Line insulators – Line insulators, Properties of insulators, Line insulator materials

Line insulators The overhead line conductors should be supported with the poles or towers by means of insulators. These insulators act as supports in order to avoid any leakage of…

Types of overhead lines – Short transmission lines, Medium transmission lines, Long transmission lines, Guarding

Types of overhead lines The transmission line has three parameters, resistance, inductance and capacitance distributed uniformly along the whole length of the line. The resistance and inductance forms series impedance.…

Effects of transmission – Skin effect, Corona: Factors affecting corona, Advantages of corona, Disadvantages of corona

Effects of transmission 1. Skin effect When an alternating current flows through a conductor, a flux will be produced in it. This flux will be higher at the center of…

Types of poles – Wooden poles, Concrete poles, Tubular steel poles, Latticed steel tower

Types of poles Line supports or the poles which hold the conductors to a height they are above the ground level. In general, four types of poles are used, depending…

Overhead line transmission – Main components used in overhead lines, Transmission line conductors, Properties of conductors

Overhead line transmission The overhead lines are used to transmit electricity from power plants to consumers. A network of electrical power lines are used to transmit the electricity over a…

Alternative transmission – Primary transmission, Secondary transmission, Advantages of AC transmission, Disadvantages of AC transmission

Alternative transmission From the power generating stations, a large amount of AC supply is produced and is transmitted through transmission lines. The layout of a typical AC power supply system.…

Direct Transmission – Advantages of DC transmission, Disadvantages of DC transmission

Direct Transmission Let us see the transmission of DC power from the AC power. The single line diagram of high voltage direct current transmission is given in Alternative current is…

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