Breast Cancer, Causes of Breast Cancer, Signs and symptoms of Breast Cancer, Treatment for Breast Cancer

Breast Cancer


cancer is a disease process whereby cells proliferate abnormally, ignoring growth regulating signals in the environment surrounding the cell.


* No definite cause

* Hormones and genetics play some role in causing breast cancer

Risk Factors

* Breast cancer may be seen after the age of 50

* Personal or family history of breast cancer may lead to a main cause

* Persons with early menarche may have more chances of getting breast cancer

* Females who are not having children are more prone to breast cancer

* Late maternal age at first birth

* Late menopause also one of the cause

* Exposure to ionizing radiation

* Obesity also rarely cause breast cancer

Signs and Symptoms

* Non tender, fixed, hard mass with irregular border in the breast

* Peau d’ orange (orange peel) appearance of the skin seen on the breast

* Nipple retraction in advanced cancer

* Ulcerating and fungating lesions


* Self breast examination

* Fine needle biopsy

* Open biopsy

* Incisional biopsy

* Core biopsy

* Histologic examination


Surgical Management:

* Mastectomy – removal of the affected breast

* Modified radical mastectomy

* Breast conservation surgery

* Lumpectomy

* Partial mastectomy

* Segmental mastectomy

* Quadrantectomy. (Axillary lymph node dissection)

* Radiotherapy

* Chemotherapy

* Hormonal therapy

* Bone marrow transplantation

Nursing Management

* Family support

* Exercise

* Psychological exercise or emotional support to patient and family members

* Dressing

* Relieving pain and comfort

* Maintain skin integrity

* Educate post operative exercise

Family Support:

Family and members should be supported with proper counselling. Explain them about the management modalities available now. Family members are advised to support the patient who is suffering with cancer.

Post Operative Exercises:

* Wall climbing exercise: Advise to stand near the wall and face the wall, advise to put the affected side on the wall, and slowly move the hand on the wall with finger walk.

* Rope pulling exercise: Advise to hang the rope on a rod and hold the two ends of the rope with two hand and lift the hand one by one in opposite direction.

* Rope turning exercise: Tie a rope on the door and the turn the rope with hand of affected side. Dressing:  Breast binder may be applied if necessary

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