Agricultural Study Materials

Change in pest and disease scenario due to climate change- How does climate change affect pests and disease- what is impact of climate change on pests – How do you think climate change will affect pests disease and weeks

•Due to increase in rainfall: Pests like bollworm, red hairy caterpillar and leaf spot diseases may increase.Due to increase in temperature: Sucking pests such as mites and leaf miner may increase.

•Due to variation in rainfall and temperature: Pest and diseases of crops to be altered because of more enhanced pathogen and vector development, rapid pathogen transmission and increased host susceptibility. Sometimes a minor pest may become a major pest.

•Agricultural biodiversity is also threatened by decreased rainfall and increased temperature, sea level rise and increased frequency and severity of drought, cyclone and flood. Quality of farm products such as fruits, vegetables, tea, coffee, aromatic and medicinal plants may be affected.

Water

•Demand for irrigation to increase with increased temperature and higher amount of evapo-transpiration. This may result in lowering of groundwater table at some places.

•The melting of glaciers in the Himalayas will increase water availability in the Ganga, Brahmaputra and their tributaries in the short-run but in the long-run the availability of water will decrease considerably.

•A significant increase in runoff is projected in the rainy season, however, may not be very beneficial unless storage infrastructure could be vastly expanded. This extra water in the rainy season, on the other hand, may lead to increase in frequency and duration of floods.

•The water balance in different parts of India will be disturbed and the quality of ground water along costal track will be more affected due to intrusion of sea water.

Soil

•Organic matter content, which is already quite low in Indian soil, would become even lower. Quality of soil organic matter may be affected.

•Reduction in rate of decomposition and nutrient supply.

•Increase in soil temperature may reduce Nitrogen availability due to volatilization and denitrification.

•Change in rainfall volume and frequency as well as wind may alter the severity, frequency and extent of soil erosion.

•Rise in sea level may lead to salt water entry in the coastal lands turning them less suitable for conventional agriculture.

Livestock

•Affect feed production and nutrition of livestock. Increased temperature would reduce digestibility. Increased water scarcity would also decrease the food and fodder production.

•Major impacts on vector-borne diseases through expansion of vector populations during rainy years, leading to large outbreaks of diseases.

•Increase water, shelter, and energy requirement of livestock for meeting projected milk demands.

•Climate change is likely to aggravate heat stress in dairy animals, adversely affecting their reproductive performance.

Fishery

•Increased sea and river water temperature is likely to affect fish breeding, migration and harvest.

•Impacts of increased temperature and tropical cyclonic activity would affect capture, production and marketing costs of the marine fish.

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