Deforestation is one of the major contributors to enhance green house effect and global warming. The conversion of forested area into a non-forested area is known as deforestation. Forests provide us many benefits including goods such as timber, paper, medicine and industrial products.
The causes are
• The conversion of forests into agricultural plantation and livestock ranching is a major cause of deforestation.
• Logging for timber
• Developmental activities like road construction, electric tower lines and dams.
• Over population, Industrialisation, urbanisation and increased global needs.
Effects of deforestation
• Burning of forest wood release stored carbon, a negative impact just opposite of carbon sequestration.
• Trees and plants bind the soil particles. The removal of forest cover increases soil erosion and decreases soil fertility. Deforestation in dry areas leads to the formation of deserts.
• The amount of runoff water increases soil erosion and also creates flash flooding, thus reducing moisture and humidity
. • The alteration of local precipitation patterns leading to drought conditions in many regions. It triggers adverse climatic conditions and alters water cycle in ecosystem.
• It decreases the bio-diversity significantly as their habitats are disturbed and disruption of natural cycles.
• Loss of livelihood for forest dwellers and rural people.
• Increased global warming and account for one-third of total CO2 emission.
• Loss of life support resources, fuel, medicinal herbs and wild edible fruits.