Ecological adaptations – plants Living in Too wet or too Dry conditions – Mesophytes

Ecological adaptations

The modifications in the structure of organisms to survive successfully in an environment are called adaptations of organisms. Adaptations help the organisms to exist under the prevailing ecological habitat. Based on the habitats and the corresponding adaptations of plants, they are classified as hydrophytes, xerophytes, mesophytes, epiphytes and halophytes.


The plants which are living in moderate conditions (neither too wet nor too dry) are known as mesophytes. These are common land plants. Example: Maize and Hibiscus.

Morphological adaptations

• Root system is well developed with root caps and root hairs

• Stems are generally aerial, stout and highly branched.

• Leaves are generally large, broad, thin with different shapes.

Anatomical adaptations

• Cuticle in aerial parts are moderately developed.

• Epidermis is well developed and stomata are generally present on both the epidermis.

• Mesophyll is well differentiated into palisade and spongy parenchyma.

• Vascular and mechanical tissues are fairly developed and well differentiated. Physiological adaptations

• All physiological processes are normal.

• Temporary wilting takes place at room temperature when there is water scarcity. Tropophytes are plants which behave as xerophytes at summer and behave as mesophytes (or) hydrophytes during rainy season.

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