Botany

Economic usages of Plants – Fibers Production, Fiber Manufacturing Business

Fibres

Botanically a fiber is a long narrow and thickwalled cell.

Cotton

Botanical name : Gossypium spp. Family : Malvaceae

Cotton is the world’s most important nonfood commercial crop.

Origin and Area of cultivation:

It is one of the oldest cultivated crops of the world. It has been cultivated for about 8000 years both in new world and in old world. Commercial cotton comes from four cotton species: two from the new world and two from the old world.

(1) G. hirsutum

(2) G.barbadense are the New world species and

(3) G. arboretum

(4) G. herbaceum are the old world species.

In India cotton is cultivated in Gujarat, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu.

Uses

It is mainly used in the manufacturing of various textile, hosiery products, toys and is also used in hospitals.

Jute

Botanical name : Corchorus spp. Family : Malvaceae

Origin and Area of cultivation:

Jute is derived from the two cultivated species (

1) Corchorus capsularis and

(2) C.olitorius is of African origin whereas C. capsularis, is believed to be Indo-Burmese origin.

It is an important cultivated commercial crop in Gangetic plains of India and Bangladesh.

Uses

It is one of the largest exported fibre material of India. The jute industry occupies an important place in the national economy of India. Jute is used for ‘safe’ packaging in view of being natural, renewable, bio-degradable and eco-friendly product. It is used in bagging and wrapping textile. About 75% of the jute produced is used for manufacturing sacks and bags. It is also used in manufacture of blankets, rags, curtains etc. It is also being used as a textile fibre in recent years.

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