Food Services Management

Food Safety and Quality – Factors Affecting Safety of food, Prevention of Food Safety Hazard, Personal Hygiene Practices, Food Handling Practices

Food Safety and Quality

Food safety is a method of handling, preparation, and storage of food in ways that prevent food-borne infections. Food can transmit pathogens which can result in the illness or death of a person consuming it. Bacteria, viruses, mold and fungi are the pathogens responsible for spoilage of food. Food safety is possible when food hygiene is practiced.

According to World Health Organization (WHO) the five key principles of food hygiene are:

☆Prevent contamination of food with pathogens spreading from people, pets, and pests.

☆Separate raw and cooked foods to prevent contaminating the cooked foods.

☆Cook foods for the appropriate length of time and at the appropriate temperature to kill pathogens.

☆Store food at the proper temperature.

☆Use safe water and safe raw materials.

Factors Affecting Safety of Food

Factors affecting food safety can be classified broadly into two categories as shown fig

Microbial hazards

Human skin, untreated water, pests, raw foods, garbage, debris and dust are the sources of food spoilage by microorganisms

Physical hazards

1. Food premises and equipments:

☆Improper and unhygienic handling.

☆Improper working condition of the equipments.

☆Improper sanitation of the premises.

2. Raw ingredients:

☆Improper handling of the raw materials.

☆Excess purchase of raw materials.

☆Usage of ingredients after its expiry.

3. Equipment, Maintenance and operations:

☆Improper working condition of the equipments.

☆Improper maintenance of the equipment.

☆Improper training given to the employees on the operation procedures.

Chemical hazards

☆Pesticides /additives and fertilizers

☆Store cleaning agents separately

☆Do not practice cleaning and pest control activities in the presence of exposed foods

☆Use of chemicals as per the manufacturer’s instruction

Biological hazards

☆The place where the foods are placed must be cleaned properly

☆Elimination of the source of contamination is fundamental to the prevention and control of the biological hazards

☆Gloves must be used as they protect the bends from containing blood, dropouts, body fluids and can avoid infection when touching the eyes, mouth or nose afterwards

☆Gloves can also protect open wounds from contamination

☆Sterilization process can be used to even eliminate microorganisms including the spores in bacteria

☆Primary method for avoiding infection is to wash hands by using liquid soaps

☆Wash bends before and after waste

Prevention of Food Safety Hazard

Temperature Control:

The primary rule of sanitation is food temperature control

1) Keep high – risk food at 58C or below 608C to avoid the temprature danger zone.

2) Should ensure the availability of thermometer to all food storage areas

3) Monitoring of temperature on regular basis

4) Thawing foods must be done in the refrigerator or under cold water

Personal Hygiene Practices

A good sanitation programme should need the hygiene of people working in food industry. Personal training must include appropriate sanitation principles of food hygiene practices.

Hygiene Practice

Personnel suffering from communicable disease is likely to be transmit infection through food. So they must be restricted from production and food handling areas. Persons who are with infected wound, skin infection or health problems must be restricted from the kitchen and serving .

Hand Washing

All personnel involved in food handling must thoroughly wash hands with hand washes using warm water.

Food Handling Practices

☆Food handling personnel should consume food in the place allocated for them

☆Should not use tobacco in any form

☆Should never use a tasting spoon twice

☆Follow hygienic practices while transporting and storing

☆Should use sanitary plastic disposable gloves while serving food

☆Should clean equipment before and after use

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