Food Services Management

Food Service Equipment- Types of Spoons, Types of Forks, Hollware, Special tableware, Napkins & Dimension, Central appointments

Table ware:


Spoons are used to transfer food from plates or bowl to mouth. They are classified according to their size, shape and use.


It is used for stirring coffee, tea and for eating purpose.

Table spoon:

It is bigger than a teaspoon and is used for serving food from serving bowls.

Place spoon/All purpose spoon:

It is an all purpose spoon bigger than a teaspoon but smaller than a table spoon.

Soup spoon:

A large rounded spoon used for eating soups.

Dessert spoon:

It is used for eating sweets, dishes and puddings.

Sundae spoon:

Long spoon to reach the bottom of sundae glass and eat semi liquid foods like ice cream toppings, floats and jelly.

Fruit spoon:

It has an elongated bowl and a pointed tip that helps in cutting fruit and eating fruits like grapes, oranges and melons.


Forks are used along with knives and spoons in serving. Forks are classified according to its uses.

Dinner fork:

It is used for the main course and measures seven inches.

Salad fork:

It is used for eating salad, the outer tines are notched, wider and longer than inner tines and its length is six inches.

Forks with extra tines:

It is used for eating spaghetti and noodles.

Dessert fork:

It is similar to salad fork and used for eating cakes, pies and pastries.

Fish fork:

A four tined fork longer than a salad fork that is used for holding and serving fish. The tines are uniform in width and length.

Seafood fork:

It is used for eating crustaceans and also called crab fork or lobster fork. It is a small, narrow, three tine fork made with short tines and a long handle. The pronged stem end helps to pick seafood while the curved scraper is used to scoop out the meat.


Holloware is metal tableware such as sugar bowl, creamers, coffee pots, soup tureens, hot food covers, water jugs, platters and other items go with the dishware on a table. It does not include cutlery or other metal utensils. Holloware is constructed for durability.

Salver for serving drinks:

A salver is a flat object (like a tray), usually made of silver on which things are carried.

■Salver for serving

■ Salver for clearing ■Ice tongs ■Ice bucket

Special tableware

■Sugar tongs – required for cube sugars

■Asparagus tongs – used to hold asparagus spears when eating

■Oyster forks – for shellfish cocktail / oyster Mud vessels and cutleries made of brass

■Sauce and soup ladles – service from sauce boat

■Cruet sets

■Nut cracker

■Ice cream scoops

■Finger bowls – a small bowl containing water for rinsing fingers after a meal

B)Napkins Plate

The basic function of the napkin is to wipe fingers and mouth. Napkins are usually square. They are called as serviettes. The size may vary depend on the type of meal. (Eg. Formal or multiple course meals –Large napkins (22-26 inches square).

■Colour of napkins should match the colour and texture of the table cloth. ■Napkins texture should allow absorbing moisture. ■Napkins should be placed in the centre of the service plate to save space. ■Napkin in napkin ring is placed on the table with the tip of the napkin point towards the guest. ■Napkin folds add fineness and creativity and they can be done in a number of ways.


☆Dinner Napkin – 18 inches square ☆Cocktail Napkin – six inches square

C) Central Appointments

■Ash tray ■Flower vase ■Cruet set (Salt and pepper)

Central appointments add an extra tone and attention to the table. They are usually placed at the centre of the table.

1. Flower arrangement:

A small flower vase is an apt centerpiece. The flowers used should be fresh and healthy and not too fragrant. Large flower arrangement should not be kept on the table, because it can block visions of the guests sitting opposite to each other.

2. Cruet set:

The cruet set should be filled with salt and pepper which can be made up of metal, ceramic, glass or stainless steel. The contents should be free flowing with appropriate number of holes depend on the style of service (commonly three holes for pepper and two holes for salt). Adding a few uncooked rice grains to the salt shaker soaks up the excess moisture and keeps the salt from clumping.

In Southern India, along with cruet set may contain pickles, different types of podis (like paruppu podi, idli podi) and chutneys.

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