•Furrows are small channels, which carry water down the land slope between the crop rows.
•Water infiltrates into the soil as it moves along the slope.
•The crop is usually grown on the ridges between the furrows.
•This method is suitable for all row crops and for crops that cannot stand in water for long periods. Crops such as maize, sunflower, sugarcane, and soybean can be irrigated by furrow irrigation.
•Crops that would be damaged by inundation, such as tomatoes, vegetables, potatoes, beans; fruit trees like citrus and grape as well as broadcasted crops like wheat.
•Irrigation water flows from the field channel into the furrows by opening up the bank of the channel or by means of siphons or spiles.
•Furrows must be on consonance with the slope, soil type, stream size, irrigation depth, cultivation practice and field length.
•Uniform flat or gentle slopes are preferred for furrow irrigation.
•On undulating land, furrows should follow the land contours.
Advantages of furrow irrigation
•Suitable for row crops and vegetables.
•Suitable for soils in which the infiltration rates vary between 0.5 and 2.5 cm/hr.
•Ideal for slopes varying from 0.2 to 0.5 per cent and a stream size of 1-2 liters/sec.
•In areas requiring surface drainage or prone to temporary water logging, furrows are very effective.
•In areas where water for irrigation purposes. is scarce, the practice of alternate or skip furrow irrigation can save considerable quantity of water without significantly affecting yields.
Water is pumped through a pipe system and then sprayed onto the crops through sprinkler heads.
•Efficient use of water
•Saving of labour
•Early seed germination
•Cooling of crops
•Higher pro+ductivity of crops