Geographic Information System GIS

Geographic Information System

GIS is a computer system for capturing, storing, checking and displaying data related to positions on Earth’s surface. Also to manipulate, analyse, manage and present spacial or geographic data. GPS is a satellite navigation system used to determine the ground position of an object. It is a constellation of approximately 30 well spaced satellites that orbit the earth and make it possible for the people with ground receivers to pinpoint their geographic location. Some applications in which GPS is currently being used for around the world include Mining, Aviation, Surveying Agricultural and Marine ecosystem.

Importance of GIS

• Environmental assessment impact

• Disaster management

• Zoning of landslide hazard

• Determination of land cover and land use

• Estimation of flood damage

• Management of natural resources

• Soil mapping

• Wetland mapping

• Irrigation management and identification of volcanic hazard

• Vegetation studies and mapping of threatened and endemic species.

Remote Sensing is the process of detecting and monitoring the physical characteristics of an area by measuring its reflected and emitted radiation at a distance from the targeted area. It is an tool used in conservation practices by giving exact picture and data on identification of even a single tree to large area of vegetation and wild life for classification of land use patterns and studies, identification of biodiversity rich or less areas for futuristic works on conservation and maintenance of various species including commercial crop, medicinal plants and threatened plants.

Specific uses

• Helps predicting favourable climate, for the study of spreading of disease and controlling it.

• Mapping of forest fire and species distribution.

• Tracking the patterns of urban area development and the changes in Farmland or forests over several years

• Mapping ocean bottom and its resources

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