GNSS refers to the collection of the world’s global satellite based positioning systems. It includes GPS (United States) GLONASS (Russia) GALILEO (European Union) BEODOU (China) IRNSS (India) QZSS (Japan). GNSS can provide centimetre level accuracy with a low-cost receiver, if an error correction technique is used. GNSS are recognized to be the systems of choice in outdoor environments and, to a great extent, one of the most accurate source of position (and precise timing) information when it is available. T he first satellite navigation system was Transit, a system deployed by the US military in 1960’s. Transit’s operations were based on the Doppler Effect: the satellites travelled on well-known paths and broadcast their signals on well-known radio frequency. The received frequency will differ slightly from the broadcast frequency because of the movement of the satellite with respect to the receiver. The satellite broad cast signals that contains orbital data (from which the position of the satellite can be calculated) and the precise time, the signals is transmitted. There are multiple constellations of GNSS satellites orbiting the earth. GNSS satellites’ orbit situated about 20,000 km above the earth’s surface. They are moving very fast, several kilometres per second. The latest generation of GNSS satellites (Block IIF) weight over 1,400 kg.
Overpopulation is the state whereby the human population rises to an extent exceeding the carrying capacity of the ecological setting. In an overpopulated environment, the numbers of people might be more than the available essential materials for survival such as transport, water, shelter, food or social amenities. This regularly contributes to environmental deterioration, worsening in […]
Man-Made Disasters – Public Awareness For Disaster Risk Reduction
Introduction “Mumbai railway station stampede kills at least 22” “Rush-hour crush on footbridge connecting two stations was triggered by falling concrete that caused panic!” At least 22 people have been killed and more than 30 injured during a rush-hour stampede on a bridge between two railway stations in Mumbai. The crush occurred on a narrow […]
Secondary Activities- what is Factors affecting location of Industries- type of Factors affecting location of Industries- what is Weber’s Theory of Location
Secondary sector transforms the raw materials obtained from the primary sector into consumer goods. So it consists of manufacturing and industrial activities. Since it adds value for the raw materials, it is also called as value addition sector. Industries consume large quantities of energy and require factories and machinery to convert the raw materials into […]