GNSS refers to the collection of the world’s global satellite based positioning systems. It includes GPS (United States) GLONASS (Russia) GALILEO (European Union) BEODOU (China) IRNSS (India) QZSS (Japan). GNSS can provide centimetre level accuracy with a low-cost receiver, if an error correction technique is used. GNSS are recognized to be the systems of choice in outdoor environments and, to a great extent, one of the most accurate source of position (and precise timing) information when it is available. T he first satellite navigation system was Transit, a system deployed by the US military in 1960’s. Transit’s operations were based on the Doppler Effect: the satellites travelled on well-known paths and broadcast their signals on well-known radio frequency. The received frequency will differ slightly from the broadcast frequency because of the movement of the satellite with respect to the receiver. The satellite broad cast signals that contains orbital data (from which the position of the satellite can be calculated) and the precise time, the signals is transmitted. There are multiple constellations of GNSS satellites orbiting the earth. GNSS satellites’ orbit situated about 20,000 km above the earth’s surface. They are moving very fast, several kilometres per second. The latest generation of GNSS satellites (Block IIF) weight over 1,400 kg.
What are all the problem occur in increasing urbanisation, Urbanization issues, population growth and difficulties
Problems of Urbanization India has the second largest urban population in the world only after China. India’s urban population (about 28% of the total population) is almost equal to the total population of USA. The rate of urban growth is on the upswing. People in large number are arriving in the mega and metropolitan cities, […]
Absolute numbers do not give any indication of the impact of population on the land and its resources. The number of persons living per unit of land areas gives a better picture. This is expressed in the form of density of population per sq.km of land area.It is obtained by dividing the total land area […]
Frontiers and Boundaries- what is Frontiers – what is example Frontiers – How are different Frontiers and Boundaries- what are some examples of geometric boundaries- Types of Boundaries- who gave Genetic Classification of Boundaries- what is a genetic classification
Frontiers: International frontiers and boundaries separate land, rivers and lakes subject to different sovereignties. In 1900 frontiers had almost disappeared and had been replaced by boundaries that are lines. A Frontier is a politico geographical area, lying beyond defined borders of a political unit into which expansion could take place. Boundaries: A boundary is a […]