The land pollution is defined as, “the
degradation of land because of the disposal of waste on the land”.Any substance (solid,liquid or gaseous) that is discharged,emitted or deposited in the environment in such a way that it alters the environment causes land pollution
-Protection of the Environment Operations Act 1997.
Types of Land Pollution: I.Solid waste: It includes all kinds ofrubbish like paper, plastic containers,bottles, cans, food, used cars, broken electronic goods, municipal waste and hospital waste.
ii. Pesticides and Fertilizers: Many farming activities engage in the application of fertilizers, pesticides and insecticides for higher crop yield which pollute land.
iii. Deforestation: Humans depend on trees for many things including life.Trees absorb carbon dioxide from the air and release Oxygen, which is needed for life. Forest helps replenish soils and help retain nutrients being
washed away. Deforestation is led to land pollution.
Causes of Land Pollution:
i. Deforestation and soil erosion:Deforestation carried out to create dry lands is one of the major concerns.Land that is once converted into a dry or barren land, can never be made
fertile again, whatever the magnitude of measures to convert it.
ii. Agricultural activities:With growing human and pet animal population,demand for food has increased considerably. Farmers often use
highly toxic fertilizers and pesticides to get rid off insects, fungi and bacteria from their crops.However the overuse of thesechemicals, results in contamination and poisoning of land.
iii. Mining activities: During extraction and mining activities, several land spaces are created beneath the surface.
iv. Landfills: Each household produces tones of garbage each year due to changing economic lifestyle of the people. Garbage like plastic, paper,cloth, wood and hospital waste get accumulated. Items that cannot be
recycled become a part of the landfills that cause land pollution.
v. Industrialization: Due to increasing
consumerism more industries were developed which led to deforestation.Research and development paved the way for modern fertilizers and chemicals that were highly toxic and led to soil contamination.
vi. Construction activities:Due to urbanization, large amount of construction activities are taking place.This has resulted in large waste articles like wood, metal, bricks, plastic. These are dumped at the outskirts of urban areas that lead to land pollution.
vii. Nuclear waste: The leftover radioactive materials, harmful and toxic chemicals affect human health.They are dumped beneath the earth to avoid any casualty.
Effects of Land Pollution:
1. Soil pollution: Soil pollution is another
form of land pollution, where the upper layer of the soil is damaged. This is caused by the overuse of chemical fertilizers, and pesticides. This leads to loss of fertile land. Pesticides kill
not only pests and also human beings.
2. Health Impact:The land when contaminated with toxic chemicals and pesticides lead to problem of skin cancer and human respiratory system.The toxic chemicals can reach our body through foods and vegetables.
3. Cause for Air pollution: Landfills and waste dumping lead to air pollution.The abnormal toxic substances spread in the atmosphere cause transmit respiratory diseases among the masses.
4. Effect on wildlife: The animal kingdom has suffered mostly in the past decades. They face a serious threat with regards to loss of habitat and natural environment. The constant
human activity on land is leaving it polluted, forcing these species to move farther away. Sometimes several species are pushed to the verge of extinction or disappear due to no
Remedial measures to control Land
1. Making people aware about the concept of a Reduce, Recycle and Reuse
2. Buying biodegradable products
3. Minimizing the usage of pesticides
4. Shifting cultivation
5. Disposing unwanted garbage properly either by burning or by burying under the soil.
6. Minimizing the usage of plastics.