The law making process in Indian Parliament stands evident for its democratic credentials. In the law making process, the role of opposition parties becomes much more important to reflect upon the relevance of the bill and its context so as to streamline the democratic governance. The law is a guiding force to regulate the society, politics and economy for the welfare of the state and people. The law is primarily introduced in the Parliament in the form of ‘bill’ as proposed legislation for consideration of the legislature. The bill will be taken for thorough discussion in the parliament to have an understanding within the framework of the constitution. The bill will become law once the legislature passed it and approved by the President. The law becomes an act only after getting consent from the President of India. The primary function of the Parliament is to make fresh laws and bring changes in the existing laws in accordance with the constitutional procedures.
The Parliament of India passes two types of bills such as:
1. Money Bill
2. Non-Money Bill or ordinary or public bills.
An ordinary bill has to pass through different stages before becoming an Act. The procedures prescribed in the Constitution for passing the bills are of two different categories. These are as follows: An ordinary bill under consideration has to go through following stages and has to pass through both houses with discussions, suggestions and approval. An ordinary bill may be introduced in either House of the Parliament.
1. The first stage of the bill relates to the introduction of the bill in either house as ‘Reading of the Bill’. Most of the bills are introduced by the Ministers concerned. The bill is drafted by the technical experts in that particular field and then council of ministers will approve the bill. The ordinary Member of Parliament can also introduce a bill which is called as ‘Private Member Bill’. For the introduction of the bill it should be informed to the Speaker of the Lok Sabha or The Chairman of Rajya Sabha one month in advance. Then the date of introduction for the Private Member Bill will be fixed and allowed to move the bill in the floor of house. Generally, there will be no discussion on the proposed bill at this reading stage which is only a formal affair.
2. After the introduction of bill, it will be published in Gazette of India. The Speaker or the Chairman may allow some bills to be published in the Gazette even before the first reading, in that case, no motion for leave to introduce bill is necessary.
3. The Second Reading of the bill usually takes place after an interval of two days after the first reading. At this stage, any of the four courses are adopted.
* The bill may be taken for consideration by the House at once.
* It may be sent to a select Committee of the House.
* It may be sent to a joint select Committee of the two Houses or
* It may be circulated for eliciting public opinion.
Very rarely bills are taken up for consideration straight away. When the bill is adopted for circulation (i.e. 4th course), the secretariat of the House concerned requests the State Governments to publish the bill in the State Gazettes inviting opinions from local bodies and recognized associations. Such opinions are circulated among the members of the House.