Block printing is the ancient method of printing designs on the textile material by hand. It is the simplest of the printing methods. In this method, the desired design is carved on a wooden or metal block. The fabric is pinned on a table which is firm, strong and withstands the pressure of printing. The top is made of metal with a resilient surface made of artificial leather. T he wooden block is stamped in the print paste or applied on the surface of the block. T he block is stamped firmly on the selected part of the fabric. This process is repeated to print the required length of fabric. Multicoloured designs require separate blocks for each colour. Block printing is done mainly in decorative pieces or in expensive linens for upholstery purposes.
● Simplest method of printing
● Handmade art
● No special printing equipment required
● Tedious and time consuming process
● Irregular colour shade
● Overall production is low
● Carving of blocks is difficult and laborious.
It is a machine printing method, in which designs are printed on textile fabric by engraved rollers. This method of printing produces over 4000 yards of printed fabric per hour. The cylinder is made up of cast iron which acts as a printing table. The cylinder is covered with many layers of special fabric which has linen in warp and wool in weft for providing resiliency. It is covered with a layer of woollen blanket which provides the perfect surface for printing. The woollen blanket is covered with unbleached cotton cloth which will absorb excess dye. The last layer is the fabric which is to be printed.
● Superior to other methods for the production of fine and precise designs ● Production is faster and accurate
● All colours required to print can be achieved in one process itself
● ● Versatile in colours, pattern and scale
● Required labour
● Laborious process
● Production cost is more for printing in small quantities
● Creation of engraved rollers is expensive
● Time consuming process
● If rollers are not aligned properly, it results in one or more colours falling out of position.
In stencil printing, the design is first traced on the cardboard, wood, metal or plastic sheets with marker pens or pencils. Using scissors, knife or sharp blade the design is cut out. The uncut portion represents the part that is to be left uncoloured. When cutting the stencil care must be taken that small patterns must be cut through first. If large patterns are cut over or keeping small pattern inside then the smaller designs would be cut away with it. The stencil is placed on the fabric to be printed and the printing paste is applied with stencil brush through its interstices. When printing is repeated, care must be taken that the stencil on face side does not take up dye. Other colours can be applied on the design when the first colour dries. This method is suitable for both fine delicate design and large space design.
● Low budget investment
● Exclusive designs and intricacy
● Unevenness on printing table leads to uneven printing
In this printing method, fabric is spread on large table and design screen is placed on the fabric. The screen consists of wooden frame covered with nylon or silk cloth and the technique is called as silk screen printing. Lacquer is applied on the screen to make the areas except design opaque so that printing paste is transferred through the design only. Based on the number of colours, many numbers of screens are prepared to complete the design. The printed portion should be allowed to dry before placing the second screen. When screens are placed properly, they will produce a complete design.