Three great events of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries – the Renaissance, the geographical discoveries and the Reformation – mark a transition from the Middle Ages to the Modern.
The essence of Renaissance was the centrality given to the human and the natural, with religion relegated to subordinate place. Renaissance had a profound impact on the making of the modern world.
It stimulated the geographical imagination of Europe. The success of Columbus encouraged overseas enterprise enormously. Reformation, a revolt against the Catholic Church, transformed the religious map and marked a major turning point in attitudes to religion.
Attempts to consolidate a monarchy and to make it absolute resulted in Spain, France, and England evolving as nation states.of development, however, the Renaissance became more than a mere revival of classical learning.
It included an impressive record of new achievements in art, literature, science, philosophy, education, religion, and politics. Renaissance incorporated a number of ideas. Notable among them were humanism, scepticism, individualism, and secularism.
A unique aspect of the Renaissance was the contribution made not by monks and nobles, but by laypersons.