Nursing

Pneumonia, signs and symptoms of pneumonia, causes of pneumonia, complications and risk factors of pneumonia

Pneumonia is swelling [inflammation] of the lung tissue, caused by a bacterial infection.

Causative organism

* Streptococcus pneumoniae

* Hemophilus influenzae

* Staphylococcus aureus

Incubation period

* 1day to 1 week

Types of pneumonia

* Derived by cause, location, Acquired.

Signs and symptoms

* Chest pain while breathe or cough

* Shortness of breathe

* Fatigue

* Confusion

* Fever

* Sweating and shivering chills

* Nausea, vomiting or diarrhea

* Coughing up blood (Haemoptysis) 

* Wheezing

* Rapid heart beat

*Loss of Appetite

Complications

* Bacteremia – The infection spread to the blood stream which leads the septic shock and low blood pressure.

* Lung Abscesses

* Impaired breathing

* Acute respiratory distress syndrome

* Pleural effusion and death

Diagnosis

* Blood test

* Sputum test

* Urine test

* CT scan

* Fluid sample [ pleural fluid]

* Bronchoscopy

* Chest x- ray

Risk factors

* Being hospitalized

* Chronic disease

* Smoking

* Weakened or suppressed immune system

Management

* Intravenous Antibiotics (Tetracycline, Levofloxacin)

* Respiratory Therapy (Spirometry, Breathing exercise)

* Fatal Oxygen

Preventive Measures

Pneumonia Vaccine

* Prevnar 13

* Prevnar 23

* Cigarette smoking to be quit

* Cover while cough and sneezes

* Dispose of used tissues promptly

* Practice good hygiene

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