Sexual reproduction involves the production and fusion of male and female gametes. The former is called gametogenesis and the latter is the process of fertilization.recall the
sexual reproduction in algae and bryophytes.
They reproduce by the production of gametes which may be motile or non motile depending upon the species. The gametic fusion is of three types (Isogamy, Anisogamy and Oogamy). In
algae external fertilization takes place whereas in higher plants internal fertilization occurs.
A flower is viewed in multidimensional perspectives from time immemorial. It is an inspirational tool for the poets. It is a decorative material for all the celebrations. In Tamil literature the five lands are denoted by different
flowers. The flags of some countries are embedded with flowers. Flowers are used in the preparation of perfumes. For a Morphologist,
a flower is a highly condensed shoot meant for reproduction. A Flower possesses four whorls- Calyx, Corolla, Androecium and Gynoecium. Androecium and Gynoecium are essential organs(Figure 1.3). The process or changes involved in sexual reproduction of higher plants include three stages .They are Pre- fertilization, Fertilization and Post fertilization changes.