Surveying has been essential element in the development of man’s environment for centuries. It is important in planning and execution of every form of construction. Surveying is used to map the earth above and below the sea, prepare navigational map and establish databases for natural resource management, development of engineering data for huge buildings constructions, settlements, roads, railways, bridge constructions and so forth.
Surveying is the science of measuring and recording distances, angles, heights and sizes of the earth’s surface to obtain data from which accurate plans and maps are made. Generally, surveying is the systematic process of making measurements on the fi eld from which maps are drawn. Th e map is the most essential piece of equipment which the geographer, engineer and architect use. Th e geographers must learn to read, make and use map as an essential element. In this lesson, we will see about clinometers and Prismatic Compass.