Agri Diseases

DISEASES OF PULSES – Agricultural study materials

Common Pulse Diseases COMMON DISEASES CAUSAL ORGANISM Dry root rot Macrophomina phaseolina Leaf spot Cercospora canescens Powdery mildew Erysiphe polygoni Rust Uromyces phaseoli-typica Anthracnose Colletotrichum lindemuthianum Bacterial blight Xanthomonas phaseoli Yellow mosaic Yellow mosaic virus Leaf crinkle Leaf crinkle virus RED GRAM / PIEGON PEA Wilt Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. udum Stem blight Phytophthora drechsleri f.sp. […]


Pest Affecting Tomoto Production – Free Online Agri Studymaterial

TOMATO Fruit borer Helicoverpa armigera (Noctuidae: Lepidoptera) It is a major pest of tomato. Main hosts are gram, cotton, citrus, indigo, cowpea, groundnut, linseed, sunflower, bhendi, chilli, millets, tobacco, etc.  Young larvae feed on tender foliage and full-grown caterpillars attack fruits.  They make circular boreholes and thrust their head inside fruit and eat inner contents.  […]


Pest Affecting Brinjal Production – Free Online Agri Studymaterial

BRINJAL Shoot and fruit borer Leucinodes orbonalis (Pyraustidae: Lepidoptera) Leucinodes orbonalis is the most important and destructive pest of brinjal. It starts damaging brinjal plant, few weeks after transplantation.  Larva bores into tender shoots and causes withering of terminal shoots or dead hearts.  It also bores into petioles of leaves, flower buds and developing fruits […]


PESTS ON GROUNDNUT – free online study material

Aphid, Aphis craccivora     Hemiptera, Aphididae They are small-sized insects (2 mm long), pear shaped, green, greenish brown or greenish black in colour. Adults are mostly wingless but few winged forms also seen. It has 12-14 generations per year  Nymphs and adults suck sap from tender growing shoots, flowers, causing stunting and distortion of the […]


Pest In ONION and GARLIC – Pest affecting Onion and Garlic – Pest Studymaterial

Onion Onion Thrips,Thrips tabaci  (Thripidae: Thysanoptera) It is a major cosmopolitan thrips injurious to onion and garlic. Nymphs and adults remain in dense at leaf bases and whorls of onion and feed by lacerating the tissues and imbibing the oozing cell sap.  Infested onion develops a spotted appearance on the leaves; subsequently turning into pale […]


Pests on Chillies, Turmeric and Ginger

PESTS ON SPICES AND CONDIMENTS CHILLIES Chilli thrips Scirtothrips dorsalis (Thripidae: Thysanoptera) Thrips cause severe damage in areas where chilli is cultivated as a dry crop. It also attacks on tea, acacia, prosopis, castor, cotton, mango, onion, groundnut, pomegranate, pulses, brinjal grape vine, Citrus sp. and numerous weeds.  Both nymphs and adults lacerate leaf tissues […]


SugarCane Pests – Study About Pest – Sugarcane production – Free Study guide

PESTS ON SUGARCANEEarly shoot borer – Chilo infuscatellus (Crambidae: Lepidoptera) P refer 1-3 months old crop. Caterpillar enters the stem by making holes above the ground level.  Formation of “dead heart” is the symptom. Affected plants can be easily pulled out. Rotten portion of the dead heart emits an offensive odour. High temperature, low humidity, […]


Pest on Mango – What are all the Pest Affects mango production – Mango production, Cultivation

MANGO Mango hoppers Idioscopus clypealis, I. niveosparsus, Amritodes atkinsoni      (Cicadellidae: Hemiptera) Hoppers are the most destructive pests of mango. Hoppers are active throughout the year, but abundant during hot months of May to June and cold months of October to January, synchronizing with flowering of mango trees. When inflorescence appears, hoppers start laying […]

Agri manufacturing

PEST Affecting the Fruits – GUAVA, BER, JACK AND PINEAPPLE – Pest Studymaterial

GUAVA Tea mosquito bug Helopeltis antonii (Miridae: Hemiptera) Fruit borer/ Castor capsule borer Conogethes punctiferalis (Pyraustidae: Lepidoptera) Guava fruit flies Bactrocera diversus (Tephritidae: Diptera) Whiteflies, Aleurotuberculatus psidii (Aleyrodidae: Hemiptera) Aphids, Aphis gossypii (Aphididae: Hemiptera) Mealy bugs, Coccus viridis and Ferrisia virgata (Pseudococcidae: Hemiptera) Guava scales Chloropulvinaria psidii (Diaspididae: Hemiptera) Bark borer, Indarbela tetraonis (Metarbelidae: Lepidoptera) […]

Agricultural Study Materials Insects

WHAT IS PEST ON MILLETS – Study About Pest Affects Millets

Millets are indigenous to many parts of the world.The most widely grown millet is pearl millet, which is an important crop in India and parts of Africa.Finger millet, proso millet, and foxtail millet are also important crop species In India, various alcoholic beverages are produced from millets.[31] Millet is also the base ingredient for the […]

Agricultural Study Materials Insects

Pest Affecting Rice – Types Of Pest Affecting rice – Study Material

PEST ON RICE Swarming caterpillar – Spodoptera mauritia     Noctuidae : Lepidoptera It is a serious pest on nurseries and early stage of the crops. During night hours, larvae cut the seedlings in large scale and present a cattle-grazing appearance to the field. Gregarious feeders and march from field to field. Damage is severe in […]

Agri manufacturing Insects

Common Predators and Parasitoids

Beneficial insects and mites belong to three categories: predators, parasitoids, and pollinators. Predators capture and eat other organisms such as insects or mites. Predators include ladybird beetles, ground beetles, lacewings, syrphid (hover) flies, aphid midges (Aphidoletes) and yellowjacket wasps. Parasitoids are insects that parasitize other insects. The immature stages of parasitoids develop on or within its […]

Agricultural Study Materials

Insect Wings & Legs and their modifications – Free Online Studymaterial

The thorax consists of three segments viz., pro, meso and metathorax and each bear onepair of legs called fore, middle and hind legs respectively. Legs are the principal organ oflocomotion and they have undergone many modifications and have been adapted to wide rangeof functions. The generalized insect leg consists of six segments. 1. A basal […]

Agricultural Study Materials

Insects, Characteristics of insects, Dominance of Insects – Factors responsible for dominance – Agricultural Free Online Studymaterial

ENTOMOLOGY DEFINITION: Entomology is the scientific study of insects. The word ‘Entomology’ is derived from two Greek words ‘Entomon’ meaning insects and ‘logos’ meaning  study  It is a branch of zoology dealing with Origin & evolution of insects and their diversity & classification, body organisation and function, development, interaction with surroundings in which they live, […]