Food Services Management

Types Of Kitchen, Kitchen Layout and Design, How Hotels are design their Kitchen

Types of Kitchen and Kitchen Layouts:

Kitchens are the heart of any food service. A kitchen is a room or part of a room used for cooking and food preparation. The kitchens in food service operations are generally larger and equipped with bigger and more heavyduty equipment than a the residential kitchen. For example, a large restaurant may have a huge walk-in refrigerator and a large commercial dishwasher machine. Quantity food production was initiated with fire wood chulah.

In the early 19th century, Benjamin Thompson’s Energy Saving Stove with fully closed iron stove using one fire to heat several pots was used in large kitchens.

Later with advancement of technology gas stove and electric stove came into existence. Now-adays solar energy has come into practice for quantity food production. The details of different types of kitchens are given below: Professional kitchens are often equipped with gas stoves, as these allow cooks to regulate the heat more quickly and more finely than electrical stoves. Some special appliances are typical for professional kitchens, such as large installed deep fryers, steamers, or bainmarie.

E.g.: Samosa, puffs). Since the early 21st century, convenience stores have attracted greater market share by preparing more food on-site and better customer service than some fast food outlets.

Fast food Kitchen The kitchens in railway dining cars have presented special challenges since space is limited. The food service personnel need to serve a great number of meals quickly.

Galley Kitchens aboard ships and aircraft are often referred to as galleys. On yachts, galleys are often cramped, with one or two burners fueled by small LPG cylinders. On passenger airliners, the kitchen is reduced to a pantry. The crew’s role is to heat and serve in-flight meals delivered by a catering company. An outdoor kitchen at a campsite might be placed near a well, water pump,or water tap. It might provide tables for food preparation and cooking using portable camp stoves. Some campsite kitchen areas have a large tank of propane connected to burners, so that campers can cook their meals. Military camps and similar temporary settlements of nomads may have dedicated kitchen tents, which have a vent to enable cooking smoke to escape.

Outdoor Kitchen Depending on the type of kitchen, it is mandatory to follow a work triangle.

Work triangle:

The kitchen work triangle is a concept used to determine efficient kitchen layouts that are both aesthetic and functional. The primary tasks in a kitchen are carried out between the cook top, the sink and the refrigerator (store). These three points and the imaginary lines between them, make up what kitchen experts call the work triangle. The idea is that when these three elements are in close proximity to one other, the kitchen will be easy and efficient to use, cutting down on wasted steps.

If the kitchen has only one sink, it should be placed between or across from the cooking surface, preparation area, or refrigerator (store). No major traffic patterns should cross through the triangle. The main goal of the triangle is efficiency. It keeps all the major work stations near the cook, without cramping the kitchen. The work triangle is also designed to minimize traffic within the kitchen so the cook is not interrupted.

Besides the work triangle, following thumb rules need to be considered when planning a kitchen. They are as follows:

☆Work aisles should not be less than 42 inches (110 cm) for one cook, or 48 inches (120 cm) for multiple cooks.

☆A sink should have a clear counter area of at least 24 inches (61 cm) on one side, and at least 18 inches (46 cm) on the other side.

☆A refrigerator should have a clear counter area of at least 15 inches (38 cm) on the handle side; or the same on either side of a side-by-side refrigerator; or the same area on a counter no more than 48 inches (120 cm) across from the refrigerator. ☆A stove or cook top should have a clear 15 inches (38 cm) area on oneside, and at least 12 inches (30 cm) on the other side. ☆At least 36 inches (91 cm) of food preparation area should be located next to the sink.

☆The work flow in the kitchen must be organized in a way to gain efficiency, save time and work in a conducive environment.

Types of kitchen layouts :

●A single-file kitchen, also known as a one-way galley or a straight-line kitchen has the entire work triangle along one wall and is the only solution due to restriction of space. This may be common in an attic space that is being converted into a living space, or a studio apartment.

●The double-file kitchen or two-way galley has two rows of cabinets at opposite walls, one containing the stove and the sink, the other the refrigerator. T his is the classical work kitchen and makes efficient use of space.

●The L-kitchen has the cabinets occupying the two adjacent walls. Again, the work triangle is preserved, and there may even be space for an additional table at a third wall, provided it does not intersect the triangle.

The U- shaped kitchens can work both in large spaces, as well as in small space. The design concept of work triangle is well fitted in this type. It is practical , time efficient and has sufficient moving space.

The G-kitchen has cabinets along three walls, like the U-kitchen, and also a partial fourth wall, often with a double basin sink at the corner of the G shape.

The G-kitchen provides additional work and storage space, and can support two work triangles. T he block kitchen or island kitchen is a more recent development, typically found in open kitchens. Here, the stove or both the stove and the sink are placed where L or U shaped kitchen .

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