Various Acts Governing Food Establishments
The Factories Act (1948)
In India the first Factories Act was passed in 1881. This Act was basically designed to protect children and to provide few measures for health and safety of the workers.
This law was applicable to only those factories, which employed 100 or more workers.
The Recommended committee was accepted by GOI in 1948 and Present Act (ie) the Factories Act 1948 was enacted.
☆To ensure adequate safety measures
☆To promote the health and welfare of the workers
☆To prevent haphazard growth of factories
☆To regulate the working conditions
☆To relieve workers from industrial fatigue
☆To improve the image, growth and development of industries
☆To reduce wastage and increase efficiency in an organization
☆To maintain industrial peace and stability
Main provisions of the Factories Act
d) Working hours of adults
e) Annual leave with wages
a) Provisions regarding health
The occupier of factory is obligated to undertake the following measures for ensuring good health and physical fitness.
■Disposal of wastes and effluents
■Ventilation and temperature
■Latrines and urinals
b) Provisions regarding safety
Every factory must take appropriate safety measures as provided under the act.
■Fencing of all dangerous and moving parts of the machinery while in motion or use.
■Young persons (between 15 and 18) are not supposed to work on any dangerous machine without adequate training and supervision.
■Keeping floors, stairs and steps from obstructions and slippery substances and providing with substantial handrails.
■Taking necessary measures to prevent accumulation of explosive or in flammable dust, fumes, gases or vapours.
c) Provisions regarding welfare of workers
All the factories shall provide adequate and suitable facilities for
■Washing and drying of wet clothes and storing of clothes
■Sitting arrangements during rest
■First aid box
■Ambulance room if workers are more than 500.
■Canteen should be provided with sufficient light and ventilation
■Should provide drinking water in rest rooms, shelters and lunch room
■Crèches should be provided when more than 30 women workers are employed in the factories.
d) Working Hours of Adults
■A worker cannot be employed for more than 48 hours in a week.
■Every worker should have one day holiday in a week.
■If worker is deprived of any of weekly holiday, he shall be given compensatory holiday.
■A worker cannot be employed for more than 9 hours in a day.
■Every worker should be allowed at least half an hour rest interval after a maximum working of 5 hours at a stretch.
■Prohibition of overlapping shift.
■No double employment
■If an employee does more work at the usual time, he should receive the wages double the ordinary rate of wages.
■Women worker cannot be employed before 6.00 a.m. and after 7.00 p.m.
■Children below 14 are not to be employed in the factory
e) Annual leave with wages
The Factories Act has provided annual / earned leave of 12 working days for all the workers who have worked at least 240 days in a year.
Minimum Wages Act 1948
The Minimum Wages Act 1948 is an Act of Parliament concerning Indian labour law that sets the minimum wages that must be paid to skilled and unskilled labours.
India introduced the minimum wages Act in 1948, giving both the Central Government and State Government jurisdiction in fixing wages.
Concept of minimum wage
The wage which must be paid whether the company earns profit or not.