Water Soluble Vitamins
Vitamin B5-Pantothenic acid
Vitamin B9-Folic acid
Vitamin C -Ascorbicacid
These vitamins are essential for many metabolic functions of the body. These are daily required in diet.
Vitamin B1- Thiamine
Thiamine is essential for the normal metabolism of carbohydrates and fats. It is necessary for the transmission of nerve impulses.
Daily requirements: 0.5 to 2 mg
whole grain cereals, wheat, ragi, pulses (dhal), vegetables and potatoes, green leafy vegetables. Meat, fish, liver and eggs.
• Helps in carbohydrate utilization.
• Maintenance of appetite and digestion.
Beriberi- condition in which there is a severe muscle wasting, growth retardation in children, neurological disturbances and frequent infection.
Vitamin B2, also known as riboflavin, is one of the eight B-complex vitamins. It is essential for the health of skin and for normal vision.
Daily requirements: 0.6 mg/ 1000 Kcal
Riboflavin is found in eggs, nuts, dairy products, meats, broccoli, sprouts, wheat germ, wild rice, mushrooms, soyabeans, green leafy vegetables and whole grain and enriched cereals and bread. Riboflavin also synthesized by bacteria in intestine.
• It helps the body break down carbohydrates, proteins and fats to produce energy.
• It allows oxygen to be used by the body.
* Glossitis- Ulceration of the tongue.
* Angular stomatitis- Cracks at the corner of the lips.
* Corneal ulceration
Niacin is one of the B-complex nutrients; it can be synthesized in body.
Daily requirements: 10-15 mg
Found in appreciable amounts in liver, yeast, meat, legumes, peanuts and whole cereals. Foods that are good sources of tryptophan are animal protein and vegetable protein.
• Helps in normal functioning of skin, intestinal tract and nervous system
1. Pellagra– Three conditions are
a. Dermatitis -dark, dry and scaly skin
b. Diarrhea- due to atrophy of intestinal wall
c. Dementia-Memory Loss
2. Glossitis, mental disorders
Vitamin B5- Pantothenic
Anti dermatitis factor
Daily requirements: 10mg
Eggs, liver, yeast, many fish and vegetables.
• Necessary for metabolic functions
Dermatitis, hair loss
This vitamin B6 is otherwise known as pyridoxine. It is stored in muscle but found in tissues throughout the body.
Daily requirements: 1.5-2 mg for normal adults.
Whole grains, legumes, bananas, potato, liver, kidney and other meats, fortified breads and cereals. Sunflower seeds, soya beans, walnuts and yeast are the richest sources of pyridoxine among plant foods.
• Production of red blood cells
• It is readily absorbed from intestines
• Improves immunity
• Improves nervous system
• Reduces muscle spasms, cramps and numbness
• Maintains proper balance of sodium and phosphorous in the body
Anaemia, nervousness, insomnia, oedema (Water retention), mental depression. Muscle weakness, tooth decay. Arm and leg cramps, Skin lesions and skin disorder.
Otherwise known as Biotin. It is associated with carbohydrates metabolism.
Daily requirements: Traces
Egg yolk, liver, kidney, tomatoes, vegetables, legumes and cereals.
It is needed for protein and fatty acid synthesis
Deficiency syndrome: Dermatitis, hair fall.
Vitamin B9 includes both folate and folic acid and is important for several functions in the body.
Daily requirements: 0.4mg
Fish, mutton, liver, egg, chicken, green leafy vegetables, pulses, lentils, beans, sunflower seeds, beets, broccoli, spinach, orange juice, tofu, fish, meat, fortified cereals, milk, cheese, eggs, oysters, crab etc.,
• Folic acid helps the body to convert carbohydrates into glucose, which is used to provide energy.
• Folic acid helps in building of antibodies which prevent and heal infections.
• Regulates blood cells formation.
* A recent study connected folic acid deficiency with autism
* Megaloblastic anemia
* Low birth weight babies
* Congenital defects in the child- cleft lip and cleft palate
This vitamin is destroyed by heat.
Daily requirements: 1-3 μg
Foods of animal origin, also synthesized by bacteria.
• DNA Synthesis
• Stimulates and promotes maturation of RBC’s
* Pernicious anemia
* Neurological and mental disturbances
Vitamin C is also known as ascorbic acid. It is an antioxidant and water soluble vitamin.
Daily requirements: up to 40 mg
Sources: Citrus fruits (amla, guava, lemon, orange, tomato), green leafy vegetables.
• Helps in wound healing
• Prevents bleeding
Deficiency Syndrome Scurvy- Painful swelling of gums and joints. Multiple hemorrhages specially in gums, skin and mucus membrane delayed wound healing.