Nursing

Water Soluble Vitamins, Vitamin B1, B2 to B12, Daily Requirements of Vitamins, Vitamin Sources,Vitamins Deficiency Syndrome

Water Soluble Vitamins

Vitamin B1-Thiamine

Vitamin B2-Riboflavin

Vitamin B3-Niacin

Vitamin B5-Pantothenic acid

Vitamin B6-Pyridoxin

Vitamin B7-Biotin

Vitamin B9-Folic acid

Vitamin B12-Cyanocobalamine

Vitamin C -Ascorbicacid

These vitamins are essential for many metabolic functions of the body. These are daily required in diet.

Vitamin B1- Thiamine

Thiamine is essential for the normal metabolism of carbohydrates and fats. It is necessary for the transmission of nerve impulses.

Daily requirements: 0.5 to 2 mg

Sources

whole grain cereals, wheat, ragi, pulses (dhal), vegetables and potatoes, green leafy vegetables. Meat, fish, liver and eggs.

Functions

• Helps in carbohydrate utilization.

• Maintenance of appetite and digestion.

Deficiency Disorder

Beriberi- condition in which there is a severe muscle wasting, growth retardation in children, neurological disturbances and frequent infection.

Vitamin B2

Vitamin B2, also known as riboflavin, is one of the eight B-complex vitamins. It is essential for the health of skin and for normal vision.

Daily requirements: 0.6 mg/ 1000 Kcal

Sources

Riboflavin is found in eggs, nuts, dairy products, meats, broccoli, sprouts, wheat germ, wild rice, mushrooms, soyabeans, green leafy vegetables and whole grain and enriched cereals and bread. Riboflavin also synthesized by bacteria in intestine.

Functions

• It helps the body break down carbohydrates, proteins and fats to produce energy.

• It allows oxygen to be used by the body.

Deficiency Syndrome

* Glossitis- Ulceration of the tongue.

* Angular stomatitis- Cracks at the corner of the lips.

* Corneal ulceration

Vitamin B3

Niacin is one of the B-complex nutrients; it can be synthesized in body.

Daily requirements: 10-15 mg

Sources

Found in appreciable amounts in liver, yeast, meat, legumes, peanuts and whole cereals. Foods that are good sources of tryptophan are animal protein and vegetable protein.

Functions

• Helps in normal functioning of skin, intestinal tract and nervous system

Deficiency Syndrome

1. Pellagra– Three conditions are

a. Dermatitis -dark, dry and scaly skin

b. Diarrhea- due to atrophy of intestinal wall

c. Dementia-Memory Loss

2. Glossitis, mental disorders

Vitamin B5- Pantothenic

acid

Anti dermatitis factor

Daily requirements: 10mg

Sources

Eggs, liver, yeast, many fish and vegetables.

Functions

• Necessary for metabolic functions

Deficiency Syndrome

Dermatitis, hair loss

Vitamin B6

This vitamin B6 is otherwise known as pyridoxine. It is stored in muscle but found in tissues throughout the body.

Daily requirements: 1.5-2 mg for normal adults.

Source

Whole grains, legumes, bananas, potato, liver, kidney and other meats, fortified breads and cereals. Sunflower seeds, soya beans, walnuts and yeast are the richest sources of pyridoxine among plant foods.

Functions

• Production of red blood cells

• It is readily absorbed from intestines

• Improves immunity

• Improves nervous system

function

• Reduces muscle spasms, cramps and numbness

• Maintains proper balance of sodium and phosphorous in the body

Deficiency Syndrome

Anaemia, nervousness, insomnia, oedema (Water retention), mental depression. Muscle weakness, tooth decay. Arm and leg cramps, Skin lesions and skin disorder.

Vitamin B7

Otherwise known as Biotin. It is associated with carbohydrates metabolism.

Daily requirements: Traces

Sources

Egg yolk, liver, kidney, tomatoes, vegetables, legumes and cereals.

Functions

It is needed for protein and fatty acid synthesis

Deficiency syndrome: Dermatitis, hair fall.

Folic acid

Vitamin B9 includes both folate and folic acid and is important for several functions in the body.

Daily requirements: 0.4mg

Sources

Fish, mutton, liver, egg, chicken, green leafy vegetables, pulses, lentils, beans, sunflower seeds, beets, broccoli, spinach, orange juice, tofu, fish, meat, fortified cereals, milk, cheese, eggs, oysters, crab etc.,

Functions

• Folic acid helps the body to convert carbohydrates into glucose, which is used to provide energy.

• Folic acid helps in building of antibodies which prevent and heal infections.

• Regulates blood cells formation.

Deficiency Syndrome

* A recent study connected folic acid deficiency with autism

* Megaloblastic anemia

* Sterility

* Low birth weight babies

* Congenital defects in the child- cleft lip and cleft palate

Vitamin B12-Cyanocobalamine

This vitamin is destroyed by heat.

Daily requirements: 1-3 μg

Sources

Foods of animal origin, also synthesized by bacteria.

Functions

• DNA Synthesis

• Stimulates and promotes maturation of RBC’s

Deficiency Syndrome

* Pernicious anemia

* Infertility

* Neurological and mental disturbances

Vitamin C

Vitamin C is also known as ascorbic acid. It is an antioxidant and water soluble vitamin.

Daily requirements: up to 40 mg

Sources: Citrus fruits (amla, guava, lemon, orange, tomato), green leafy vegetables.

Functions

• Helps in wound healing

• Prevents bleeding

• Antioxidant

Deficiency Syndrome Scurvy- Painful swelling of gums and joints. Multiple hemorrhages specially in gums, skin and mucus membrane delayed wound healing.

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