nutrition and dietetics

What is DRY HEAT METHOD- what is Roasting- Roasting advantage and disadvantage- what is Grilling- Grilling advantage and disadvantage – what is Toasting- Toasting advantage and disadvantage – what is Baking- Baking advantage and disadvantage – what is Sauteing- sauteing advantage and disadvantage – what is Frying- Frying advantage and disadvantage-

DRY HEAT METHOD

Dry heat cooking gives a crisp texture, brown colour and pleasant flavor to the foods. Some common ways by which you cook food by dry heat are described here.

Roasting:

This method of cooking food by dry heat is roasting. While roasting, the food is subjected directly on a hot tava or girdle or sand or fire and cooked. Eg. Groundnuts

Advantages

* Food is tastier when cooked in this way. It also adds variety to a meal.

* It improves the appearance, flavor and texture of the food.

* Spices are easily powdered if they are first roasted.

Disadvantages

ØIt is a relatively slow method of cooking. Roasted food sometimes become too dry, therefore, it may be served with a chutney or sauce. ØRoasting denatures proteins reducing their availability.

Grilling:

Grilling or broiling refers to the cooking of food by exposing it to direct heat. In this method food is placed above or in between a red hot surface. Papads, corn, phulkas, chicken can be prepared by this method.

Advantages

Grilling like roasting also gives nice flavor to the food. A variety of dishes can be prepared using this method.

Disadvantage

Constant attention is required to prevent charring.

Tips for healthy grilling:

1. Grill up fruit for dessert

2. Grill your vegetables.

3. Use gas rather than charcoal.

4. Marinate your meat.

5. Substitute grilled fish for meet./

Toasting:

This is a method where food is kept between two heated elements to facilitate browning on both sides. Bread slices are cooked by toasting.Eg. sandwiches.

Advantages

* Easy and quick method.

* Flavour improved.

Disadvantages

* Special equipment is required.

* Careful monitoring is needed to prevent charring.

Baking:

In this method, the food gets cooked in an oven or oven like appliance by dry heat. The temperature range maintained in an oven is 120 C – 260 C. The oven has to be heated slightly more than required temperature before placing the food in it. Foods prepared by baking are custards, pies, biscuits, pizzas, buns, bread and cakes. The same principle is used in tandoor ovens were you get tandoori chicken, tandoori meat and fish.

Advantages

* Food cooked using this method adds a variety to the texture in our plate.

* Baking lends a unique flavor to foods.

* Foods become light and fluffy. Eg. cakes, custards, bread.

* Certain foods can be prepared only by this method – bread, cakes.

* Uniform and bulk cooking can be achieved. Eg. Bun, bread.

* Variety of dishes can be prepared.

Disadvantages

* Special equipment like oven is required.

* Baking skills are necessary to obtain a product with ideal texture, flavor and colour.

Sauteing:

This method involves cooking in just enough of oil to cover the base of the pan (greasing the pan).The food is tossed occasionally or turned over with a spatula to enable all the pieces to come in contact with the oil and get cooked evenly. Sometimes the pan is covered with lid, reducing the flame and allowing the food to be cooked till tender in its own steam. The product obtained by this method is slightly moist, tender but without any liquid or gravy. Foods cooked by sautéing are generally vegetables used as side dishes in a menu. Eg. poriyels in Indian cuisine.The heat is transferred to the food mainly by conduction.

Advantages

* Takes less time.

* Simple technique.

* Minimum oil is used.

Disadvantage

* Constant attention is needed as there is chance of scorching or burning

Frying:

In this method, the food to be cooked is brought into contact with a large amount of hot fat. Frying is of two types namely deep get frying and shollow get frying.When food is totally immersed in hot oil, it is called deep fat frying. Samosa, chips, pakoda are examples of deep fat frying. In shallow fat frying, only a little fat is used and the food is turned in order that both the sides turn brown. Eg. Omelets, cutlets, parathas.

Advantages

* The calorific values of fried food is increased since fat is used as the cooking media.

* Frying lends a delicious flavor and attractive appearance to foods.

*Taste and texture are improved.

Disadvantages

* Fried food especially deep fried food is difficult to digest and has high calorific value. Excessive consumption of fried foods are bad for health.

* Can be a risk factor to develop life style diseaces.

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