Genetic engineering or recombinant DNA technology or gene cloning is a collective term that includes different experimental protocols resulting in the modification and transfer of DNA from one organism to another. The definition for conventional recombination was already given in Unit II. Conventional recombination involves exchange or recombination of genes between homologous chromosomes during meiosis. Recombination carried out artificially using modern technology is called recombinant DNA technology (r-DNA technology). It is also known as gene manipulation technique. This technique involves the transfer of DNA coding for a specific gene from one organism into another organism using specific agents like vectors or using instruments like electroporation, gene gun, liposome mediated, chemical mediated transfers and microinjection.
1. Sterilization: Sterilization is the technique employed to get rid of microbes such as bacteria and fungi in the culture medium, vessels and explants. i. Maintenance of Aseptic Environment: During in vitro tissue culture maintenance of aseptic environmental condition should be followed, i.e., sterilization of glassware, forceps, scalpels, and all accessories in wet steam sterilization […]
Test cross Test cross is crossing an individual of unknown genotype with a homozygous recessive. In Mendel’s monohybrid cross all the plants are tall in F1 generation. In F2 tall and dwarf plants were in the ratio of 3:1.Mendel self pollinated dwarf F2 plants and got dwarf plants in F3 and F4 generations. So he […]
Invasion of alien or introduced species disrupts ecosystem processes, threaten biodiversity, reduce native herbs, thus reducing the ecosystem services (benefits). During eradication of these species, the chemicals used increases greenhouse gases. Slowly they alter ecosystem, micro climate and nature of soil and make it unsuitable for native species and create human health problems like allergy, […]