What is Hyperthyroidism, Causes of Thyroid, Signs and symptoms of thyroid, thyroid diagnosis


It is defined as sustained increased in synthesis and relaxes of thyroid hormone by the thyroid glands.

It is highly prevented endocrine disorders.


* Graves’ disease

* Toxic, diffuse goiter

* Toxic adenoma

* Thyroid carcinoma

Signs and Symptoms

* Heat intolerance

* Exophthalmos

* Loose bowel movements

* Profuse diaphoresis

* Tachycardia

* Hypertrophy of thyroid cells


* History and physical examination

* Ophthalmologic examination

* Laboratory tests such as serum T3, T4, TSH, FT3, FT4, FTSH levels.

* Thyroid scan


Medical management:

* Antithyroid drugs which inhibits synthesis of thyroid hormone, e.g. prophylthiouracil and methimazole

* Iodine e.g. Radioactive iodine

* Beta adrenergic blockers

Surgical management:

* Subtotal thyroidectomy : Removal of one lobe of the thyroid gland.

* Total thyroidectomy : Removal of thyroid gland.

Complication of thyroidectomy:

* Hemorrhage or infection

* Risk of thyroidectomy tetany

* Respiratory obstruction

* Laryngeal edema

* Vocal cord edema


The Major complications of graves’ disease are

* Exophthalmos

* Thyroid storm

* Thyroid crisis

* Thyroid toxicosis

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