Dengue, Mosquito bite diseases, dengue fevet, dengu haemorrhagic, Symptoms of dengue, control measures of dengue

Nursing

Dengue is a viral disease , it is transmitted by the infective bite of female Aedes Aegypti mosquito, it occurs in two forms.

* Dengue fever

* Dengue Haemorrhagic

Causative organism

*Aedes Aegypti Mosquito

Incubation period

* 2 to 7 days

Signs & Symptoms

* Abrupt onset of high fever

* Severe frontal headache

* Pain behind the eyes which worsens with eye movement

* Muscle and joint pains

* Loss of sense of taste and appetite

* Measles like rash over chest and upper limbs

* Nausea and vomiting

Preventive measures

Biological

* Target larval stage of Aedes in large water storage containers

* Larvivorous fish (Gambusia), endotoxin producing bacteria (Bacillus), copepod crustaceans (mesocyclops)

Chemical

* Thermal fogging – malathion, pyrethrum

* Insecticide treatment of water containers

* Space spraying (thermal fogs)

* Indoor space spraying (2% pyrethrum), organo-phosphorus compounds

Personal

* Clothing to reduce exposed skin

* Insect repellent especially in early morning, late afternoon. Bed netting important

* Mosquito repellants (pyrethroid based)

* Coils,sanitation measures

Environmental

* Reduced vector breeding sites

* Solid waste management

* Public education

* Empty water containers and cut weed/tall grass

Diagnosis

* Haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test

* Compliment Fixation Test (CFT)

* Neutralization test (NT)

* IGM – capture Enzyme –

* Assay (MAC – ELISA)

* IGM – ELISA

* Rapid Diagnostic tests (NS 1)

Management

Management of Dengue fever is symptomatic and supportive management.

* Bed rest during the acute phase.

* Use cold sponging to keep temperature below 39° C.

* Antipyretics may be used to lower the body temperature. Aspirin/ NSAID should be avoided since it may cause gastritis, vomiting, acidosis and platelet dysfunction.

* oral fluid and electrolyte therapy are recommended for patients with excessive sweating or vomiting.

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