Dengue is a viral disease , it is transmitted by the infective bite of female Aedes Aegypti mosquito, it occurs in two forms.
* Dengue fever
* Dengue Haemorrhagic
*Aedes Aegypti Mosquito
* 2 to 7 days
Signs & Symptoms
* Abrupt onset of high fever
* Severe frontal headache
* Pain behind the eyes which worsens with eye movement
* Muscle and joint pains
* Loss of sense of taste and appetite
* Measles like rash over chest and upper limbs
* Nausea and vomiting
* Target larval stage of Aedes in large water storage containers
* Larvivorous fish (Gambusia), endotoxin producing bacteria (Bacillus), copepod crustaceans (mesocyclops)
* Thermal fogging – malathion, pyrethrum
* Insecticide treatment of water containers
* Space spraying (thermal fogs)
* Indoor space spraying (2% pyrethrum), organo-phosphorus compounds
* Clothing to reduce exposed skin
* Insect repellent especially in early morning, late afternoon. Bed netting important
* Mosquito repellants (pyrethroid based)
* Coils,sanitation measures
* Reduced vector breeding sites
* Solid waste management
* Public education
* Empty water containers and cut weed/tall grass
* Haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test
* Compliment Fixation Test (CFT)
* Neutralization test (NT)
* IGM – capture Enzyme –
* Assay (MAC – ELISA)
* IGM – ELISA
* Rapid Diagnostic tests (NS 1)
Management of Dengue fever is symptomatic and supportive management.
* Bed rest during the acute phase.
* Use cold sponging to keep temperature below 39° C.
* Antipyretics may be used to lower the body temperature. Aspirin/ NSAID should be avoided since it may cause gastritis, vomiting, acidosis and platelet dysfunction.
* oral fluid and electrolyte therapy are recommended for patients with excessive sweating or vomiting.