Encephalitis, brain inflammation or Swelling disease,Main cause of encephalitis, Symptoms of encephalitis, Symptoms of new born and infants

Nursing

Encephalitis is an acute inflammation (Swelling) of the brain usually resulting from either a viral infection or due to the body’s immune system mistakenly attacking brain tissue.

* VIRAL INFECTIONS

* Mumps

* Measles

* Rubella

* HSV

* Inuenga

* Rabies

* HUMAN SLOW VIRUS DISEASES

* HIV

* SSPE

* KURU

* CJD

* NON VIRAL INFECTIONS

* Mycoplasma

* Fungal

* Bacterial

* Catscratch Disease

* Protozoal

* PARAINFECTIONS & UNKNOWN

* Allergic

* Autoimmune

* Post vaccine

* Reye’syndrome

* Toxins

* Ideopathic

Mode of transmission

* Respiratory droplets of infected person

* Contaminated food and drink

* Mosquito, tick and insect bites

* Skin contact

Symptoms

ENCEPHALITIS SYMPTOMS

* Fever that is not very high

* Headache

* Low energy

* Poor appetite

* Hyperasthesia

* Unsteady gait

* Confusion

* Irritability

* Drowsiness

* Sti neck & back

* Vomitting

* Photophobia

Symptoms of New born and Infants

* Body stiffness

* Irritability and crying more often

* Poor feeding

* Bulging of fontanel

* Vomiting

Diagnosis

* CSF Analysis

* EEG: Diffuse slow –wave activity

* CT/MRI: Swelling of the brain parenchyma

Complications

* DIC

* Dehydration

* Respiratory arrest

* Seizures

* Loss of airway reflexex

* Coma

* Cerebral edema

* Death

* Vasomotor collapse

Management

Supportive

* Rest

* Reduction in room light, visitors, & noise

* Maintain airway, breathing and circulation

* Control of seizures

* Treatment of raised ICT.

* Manage fever ( never give aspirin)

* Maintain fluid & electrolyte balance

* Maintain blood-sugar level.

* Feeding: NPO initially then NG Tube Feeding.

* Physiotherapy

* Methyl-prednisolone or Dexa-methasone must be given to children with suspected ADEM.

Preventive Measure

* Effective viral vaccines

* Control of insect vector

* Eradications of insect breeding sites

* Insect repellents-DEET

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