What is Osteoporosis, Low bone mass and Bone tissue disease, Causes of Osteoporosis, signs and symptoms of Osteoporosis

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Osteoporosis

Osteoporosis is a disease characterised by low bone mass and deterioration of bone tissue, which can lead to increased risk of fracture.

Risk factors

* Genetics

* Lack of exercise

* Lack of calcium and vitamin D3

* Diet calcium / vitamin D deficiency

* Osteoporosis means “porous bones”

Signs and Symptoms

* Pain

* Height loss or dull pain in the bones or muscles

* Swelling

* Redness

* Limited movement

Pathophysiology

Osteoporosis is a reduction in skeletal mass caused by an imbalance between bone reabsorption and bone formation. A change in either that is increased bone reabsorption or decreased bone formation may result is osteoporosis.

Investigation

* Blood: Test Calcium & Phosphorus

* BMD

* X–ray

Causes of Osteoporosis

* Low calcium diet

* Lack of physical activity

* Family history

* Women are more likely to develop osteoposis

* Hypercalciuria

* Anticonvulsant medications

* Hyperthyroidism

* Hyper parathyroidism

* Neoplastic disease – cancer

Management

* Medication – vitamins and calcium

* Dietary supplements

* Weight bearing exercises

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