What is Hyperthyroidism, Causes of Thyroid, Signs and symptoms of thyroid, thyroid diagnosis

Nursing

HYPERTHYROIDISM:

It is defined as sustained increased in synthesis and relaxes of thyroid hormone by the thyroid glands.

It is highly prevented endocrine disorders.

Causes

* Graves’ disease

* Toxic, diffuse goiter

* Toxic adenoma

* Thyroid carcinoma

Signs and Symptoms

* Heat intolerance

* Exophthalmos

* Loose bowel movements

* Profuse diaphoresis

* Tachycardia

* Hypertrophy of thyroid cells

Investigation

* History and physical examination

* Ophthalmologic examination

* Laboratory tests such as serum T3, T4, TSH, FT3, FT4, FTSH levels.

* Thyroid scan

Management

Medical management:

* Antithyroid drugs which inhibits synthesis of thyroid hormone, e.g. prophylthiouracil and methimazole

* Iodine e.g. Radioactive iodine

* Beta adrenergic blockers

Surgical management:

* Subtotal thyroidectomy : Removal of one lobe of the thyroid gland.

* Total thyroidectomy : Removal of thyroid gland.

Complication of thyroidectomy:

* Hemorrhage or infection

* Risk of thyroidectomy tetany

* Respiratory obstruction

* Laryngeal edema

* Vocal cord edema

Complications:

The Major complications of graves’ disease are

* Exophthalmos

* Thyroid storm

* Thyroid crisis

* Thyroid toxicosis

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