What is the name of Junagadh,Hyderabad,Jodhpur ,Kashmir

Polity

Junagadh

The Nawab of Junagadh, or his Dewan, Shah Nawaz Bhutto, father of Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, who later went on to become the President of Pakistan, both rejected the autocratic rule. Three States surrounding Junagadh, chose to be part of India, and the fourth side it is covered by the Arabian sea. The majority of the population were non-Muslims, nonetheless Dewan Bhutto joined Pakistan on 15th August 1947. People started to protest and insisted the Dewan to request the Indian government to take over the administration. By then, the Dewan had already flown with his family to Karachi, the then capital of Pakistan, along with the State’s treasure.

Hyderabad

T he Nizam of Hyderabad was yet another ruler who headed a State with predominantly non-Muslim population. However, Hyderabad was in the heart of India and anticipated independent status. Lord Mountbatten informed that it cannot become a Dominion. A ‘dominion’ meant a self-governing nation in the British Commonwealth. In addition, it became known that the Nizam became a prisoner of a communal organisation, Ittehad-ulMusilmeen led by Kasim Razvi, whose armed volunteers were called ‘razakars’. T he Nizam had initially encouraged them but later lost control over their activities. In addition, the Nizam had also lifted the ban on imposed on Communist Party in 1943. T he collaborated activities of the Razakars and the Communist party resulted in violence. Trains passing through the State were attacked. With barely any help from the Nizam, the Indian troops were sent into the State in September 1948. The Nizam was offered a large portion of wealth and privileges once he declared that Hyderabad will be part of India.

As a result of the Communist antilandlord uprising in Telangana region of Hyderabad was the Bhoodan movement, meaning the ‘gifting of land’. The Bhoodan movement was initiated by Vinobha Bhave, a disciple of Mahatma Gandhi, who promoted the voluntary redistribution of land favouring the landless.

Jodhpur

Initially, Jodhpur had expressed their desire to join India, but when Maharaja Hanvant Singh took over as the ruler, he preferred joining Pakistan instead of India. Muhammed Ali Jinnah, allegedly offered Maharaja Hanvant Singh, free access to Karachi port, and arms manufacturing and importing them. Seeing the threat posed at the border, Patel made a better offer to Maharaja Hanvant Singh, by permitting importing of arms, rail connectivity between Jodhpur and Kathiawar and supply of grains to farmers during a famine. Fearing communal violence, because the population of Jodhpur were predominantly Hindus, Maharaja Hanvant Singh conceded to join India.

Kashmir

T he only Princely State left was Kashmir, which had a Hindu ruler Maharaja Hari Singh. Since the majority of the population were Muslims, Pakistan assumed Kashmir belonged to them. Hence, on August 15th 1947, ruler Hari Singh proposed a standstill agreement allowing the mobility of people and goods. Pakistan consented but India refused, which provoked Pakistan to violate the Standstill agreement. When Hari Singh wanted military assistance from India,Lord Mountbatten clarified that under the International law, India can send her military troops only if the State signs the instrument of accession, which Hari Singh promptly did, on 26th October 1954. On the very next day, 27th October 1954, the army was sent to Srinagar, ousting Pakistan from the Kashmir valley.

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