Exchange of nutrients between organisms and their environment is one of the essential aspects of an ecosystem. All organisms require nutrients for their growth, development, maintenance and reproduction. Circulation of nutrients within the ecosystem or biosphere is known as biogeochemical cycles and also called as ‘cycling of materials.’ There are two basic types,
1. Gaseous cycle – It includes atmospheric Oxygen, Carbon and Nitrogen cycles.
2. Sedimentary cycle – It includes the cycles of Phosphorus, Sulphur and Calcium – Which are present as sediments of earth.
Many of the cycles mentioned above are studied by you in previous classes. Therefore, in this chapter, only the carbon and phosphorous cycles are explained.
The circulation of carbon between organisms and environment is known as the carbon cycle. Carbon is an inevitable part of all biomolecules and is substantially impacted by the change in global climate. Cycling of carbon between organisms and atmosphere is a consequence of two reciprocal processes of photosynthesis and respiration. The releasing of carbon in the atmosphere increases due to burning of fossile fuels, deforestration, forest fire, volcanic eruption and decomposition of dead organic matters. The details of carbon cycle are given in the figure.
It is a type of sedimentary cycle. Already we know that phosphorus is found in the biomolecules like DNA, RNA, ATP, NADP and phospholipid molecules of living organisms. Phosphorus is not abundant in the biosphere, whereas a bulk quantity of phosphorus is present in rock deposits, marine sediments and guano
It is released from these deposits by weathering process. After that, it circulates in lithosphere as well as hydrosphere. The producers absorb phosphorus in the form of phosphate ions, and then it is transferred to each trophic level of food chain through food. Again death of the organisms and degradation by the action of decomposers, the phosphorus is released back into the lithosphere and hydrosphere to maintain phosphorus cycle.